Evidence from the old testament
 Spiritual Fatherhood Existed In The Old Testament.
(Rom 4:11) And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while still uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they are uncircumcised, that righteousness might be imputed to them also,
So Abraham is the father of all who believe, regardless if they are circumcised or not.
Some may consider him a natural father to the circumcised, but how about his fatherhood to the many Gentiles?
Even his fatherhood to the circumcised is still spiritual.
Also this spiritual sonship is founded on faith:
 Also Elisha Called Elijah (The Celibate) His Father
(2 Ki 2:12) And Elisha saw it, and he cried out, "My father, my father, the chariot of Israel and its horsemen!" So he saw him no more. And he took hold of his own clothes and tore them into two pieces.
This is a spiritual fatherhood.
We could also say the same about Joash the king when he called Elisha “father”:
(2 Ki 13:14) Elisha had become sick with the illness of which he would die. Then Joash the king of Israel came down to him, and wept over his face, and said, "O my father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen!"
The Old Testament clearly called God a Father of all:
(Gen 6:2) that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose.
(Prov 23:26) My son, give me your heart, And let your eyes observe my ways.
(Psa 103:13) As a father pities his children, So the LORD pities those who fear Him.
The sons of God in Genesis were differentiated from the daughters of men, as we have discussed this issue before here on st-takla.org in other sections. The sons of God were the descendants of Sheth.
 Was David Wrong By Calling Saul His Father
(1 Sam 24:11) "Moreover, my father, see! Yes, see the corner of your robe in my hand! For in that I cut off the corner of your robe, and did not kill you, know and see that there is neither evil nor rebellion in my hand, and I have not sinned against you. Yet you hunt my life to take it.
 Was Job Wrong When He Called Himself “ Father Of The Poor”?
(Job 29:16) I was a father to the poor, And I searched out the case that I did not know.
Was Joseph mistaken to call himself father of Pharaoh?
(Gen 45:8) "So now it was not you who sent me here, but God; and He has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.
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