Nicene and Ante-Nicene Fathers, Ser. II, Vol. XII:Early Church Fathers Index Previous Next
The Letters and Sermons of Leo the Great.: Sermon LXVII
(On the Passion, XVI.: delivered on the Sunday.)
I. The contemplation of the prophecies of Christs suffering are a great source of pious delight.
The minds of the faithful, beloved, ought indeed always to be occupied with wonder at Gods works and their reasoning faculties devoted particularly to those reflexions by which they may gain increase of faith. For so long as the pious hearts attention is directed either to the benefits which all enjoy, or to special gifts of His grace, it keeps aloof from many vanities and retires from bodily cares into a spiritual seclusion. But this must be the more eagerly and thoroughly done at the season of the Lord Passion, that what is then read in the sacred lections may surely be received with the ears of understanding, and that the themes which are great in word may be seen to be yet greater from the mysterious realities which underlie them. For the first reason for our lifting up our hearts 1065 is that the voices of the prophets have sung of the things which the truth of the Gospel has also narrated, not as destined to happen, but as having happened, and that what mans ears had not yet learnt was to be p. 178 accomplished, was already being proclaimed as fulfilled by the (Holy 1066 ) Spirit. For King David, whose seed according to the flesh is Christ, completed his lifetime more than 1,100 1067 years before the day of the Lords Crucifixion, and endured none of those punishments which he relates as inflicted upon himself. But because by his mouth One spoke Who was to take suffering flesh of his stock, the story of the cross is rightly anticipated in the person of him who was the bodily ancestor of the Saviour. For David truly suffered in Christ, because Jesus was truly crucified in the flesh which He had from David.
II. The Divine foreknowledge does not account for the Jews wickedness so as to excuse them.
Since then all things which Jewish ungodliness committed against the Lord of Majesty were foretold so long before 1068 , and the language of the prophets is concerned not so much with things to come as with things past, what else is thereby revealed to us but the unchangeable order of Gods eternal decrees, with Whom the things which are to be decided are already determined, and what will be is already accomplished? For since both the character of our actions and the fulfilment of all our wishes are fore-known to God, how much better known to Him are His own works? And He was rightly pleased that things should be recorded as if done which nothing could hinder from being done. And hence when the Apostles also, being full of the Holy Ghost, suffered the threats and cruelty of Christs enemies, they said to God with one consent, “For truly in this city against Thy holy Servant Jesus, Whom Thou hast anointed, Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel were gathered together to do what Thy hand and Thy counsel ordained to come to pass 1069 .” Did then the wickedness of Christs persecutors spring from Gods plan, and was that unsurpassable crime prefaced and set in motion by the hand of God? Clearly we must not think this of the highest Justice: that which was fore-known in respect of the Jews malice is far different, indeed quite contrary to what was ordained in respect of Christs Passion. Their desire to slay Him did not proceed from the same source as His to die: nor were their atrocious crime and the Redeemers endurance the offspring of One Spirit. The Lord did not incite but permit those madmens naughty hands: nor in His foreknowledge of what must be accomplished did He compel its accomplishment, even though it was in order to its accomplishment that He had taken flesh.
III. Christ was in no sense the Author of His murderers guilt.
In fact, the case of the Crucified is so different from that of His crucifiers that what Christ undertook could not be reversed, while what they did could be wiped out. For He Who came to save sinners did not refuse mercy even to His murderers, but changed the evil of the wicked into the goodness of the believing, that Gods grace might be the more wonderful, being mercifully put in force, not according to mens merits, but according to the multitude of the riches of Gods wisdom and knowledge, seeing that they also who had shed the Saviours blood were received into the baptismal flood. For, as says the Scripture, which contains the Apostles acts when the preaching of the blessed Apostle Peter pierced the hearts of the Jews, and they acknowledged the iniquity of their crime, saying, “what shall we do, brethren?” the same Apostle said, “Repent and be baptized, each one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of your sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For to you is the promise, and to your sons, and to all that are afar off, whomsoever our Lord God has called,” and soon after the Scripture goes on to say: “they therefore that received his word were baptized, and there were added on that day about 3,000 souls 1070 .” And so, in being willing to suffer their furious rage, the Lord Jesus Christ was in no way the Author of their crimes; nor did He force them to desire this, but permitted them to be able, and used the madness of the blinded people just as He did also the treachery of His betrayer, whom by kindly acts and words He vouchsafed to recall from the awful crime he had conceived, by taking him for a disciple, by promoting him to be an apostle, by warning him with signs, by admitting him to the revelation of holy mysteries 1071 , that one who had lacked no degree of kindness to correct him, might have no pretext for his crime at all.
p. 179 IV. The enormity of Judas crime is set forth.
But O ungodliest of men, “thou seed of Chanaan and not of Juda 1072 ,” and no longer “a vessel of election,” but “a son of perdition” and death, thou didst think the devils instigations would profit thee better, so that, inflamed with the torch of greed, thou wert ablaze to gain 30 pieces of silver and sawest not what riches thou wouldst lose. For even if thou didst not think the Lords promises were to be believed, what reason was there for preferring so small a sum of money to what thou hadst already received? Thou wast wont to command the evil spirits, to heal the sick, to receive honour with the rest of the apostles, and that thou mightest satisfy thy thirst for gain, it was open to thee to steal from the box that was in thy charge 1073 . But thy mind, which lusted after forbidden things, was more strongly stimulated by that which was less allowed: and the amount of the price pleased thee not so much as the enormity of the sin. Wherefore thy wicked bargain is not so detestable merely because thou countedst the Lord so cheap, but because thou didst sell Him Who was the Redeemer, yea, even thine, and hadst no pity on thyself 1074 . And justly was thy punishment put into thine own hands because none could be found more cruelly bent on thy destruction than thyself.
V. Christs Passion was for our Redemption by mystery and example.
The fact, therefore, that at the time appointed, according to the purpose of His will, Jesus Christ was crucified, dead, and buried was not the doom necessary to His own condition, but the method of redeeming us from captivity. For “the Word became flesh” in order that from the Virgins womb He might take our suffering nature, and that what could not be inflicted on the Son of God might be inflicted on the Son of Man. For although at His very birth the signs of Godhead shone forth in Him, and the whole course of His bodily growth was full of wonders, yet had He truly assumed our weaknesses, and without share in sin had spared Himself no human frailty, that He might impart what was His to us and heal what was ours in Himself. For He, the Almighty Physician, had prepared a two-fold remedy for us in our misery, of which the one part consists of mystery and the other of example 1075 , that by the one Divine powers may be bestowed, by the other human weaknesses driven out 1076 . Because as God is the Author of our justification, so man is a debtor to pay Him devotion.
VI. We can only attain to Christs perfection by following in His steps.
Therefore, dearly-beloved, by this unspeakable restoration of our health no place is left us for pride or for idleness: because we have nothing which we did not receive 1077 , and we are expressly warned not to treat the gifts of Gods grace with negligence 1078 . For He that comes so timely to our aid justly urges us with precept, and He that leads us to glory mercifully incites us to obedience. Wherefore the Lord Himself is rightly made our way, because save through Christ there is no coming to Christ. But through Him and to Him does he take his way who treads the path of His endurance and humiliation, and on that road you may be sure there are not wanting the heats of toil, the clouds of sadness, the storms of fear. The snares of the wicked, the persecutions of the unbelieving, the threats of the powerful, the insults of the proud are there; and all these things the Lord of hosts and King of glory passed through in the form of our weakness and in the likeness of sinful flesh, to the end that amid the danger of this present life we might desire not so much to avoid and escape them as to endure and overcome them.
VII. Christ cry of “Forsaken” on the cross was to teach us the insufficiency of the human nature without the Divine.
Hence it is that the Lord Jesus Christ, our Head, representing all the members of His body in Himself, and speaking for those whom He was redeeming in the punishment of the cross, uttered that cry which He had once uttered in the psalm, “O God, My God, look upon Me: why hast Thou forsaken Me 1079 ?” That cry, dearly-beloved, is a lesson, not a complaint. For since in Christ there is one person of God and man, and He could not have been forsaken by Him, from Whom He could not be separated, it is on behalf of us, trembling and weak ones, that He asks why the flesh that is afraid to suffer has not been heard. For when the Passion was beginning, to cure and correct our weak fear He had said, p. 180 “Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me: nevertheless not as I will but as Thou;” and again, “Father, if this cup cannot pass except I drink it, Thy will be done 1080 .” As therefore He had conquered the tremblings of the flesh, and had now accepted the Fathers will, and trampling all dread of death under foot, was then carrying out the work of His design, why at the very time of His triumph over such a victory does He seek the cause and reason of His being forsaken, that is, not heard, save to show that the feeling which He entertained in excuse of His human fears is quite different from the deliberate choice which, in accordance with the Fathers eternal decree, He had made for the reconciliation of the world? And thus the very cry of “Unheard” is the exposition of a mighty Mystery, because the Redeemers power would have conferred nothing on mankind if our weakness in Him had obtained what it sought. Let these words dearly-beloved, suffice to-day, lest we burden you by the length of our discourse: let us put off the rest till Wednesday. The Lord shall hear you if you pray that we may keep our promise through the bounty of Him Who lives and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.
Erigendi sursum nostri cordis the liturgical allusion is the same as that noticed in Sermon LXXIV. 5, n. 6.178:1066
The epithet sanctus is of doubtful genuineness here.178:1067
This calculation is based apparently on that of Prospers Chronicon, which again, follows that of Eusebius.178:1068
There is another reading here, ut (for et) non tam de futuris quam de præsentibus (for præteritis) , &c., which the Ballerinii probably do right to reject. Trans. “foretold so long before that the language of the prophets is concerned not so much with the future as with the present.”178:1069
Acts 4:27, 28; it is perhaps worth noticing that Leo does not strictly follow the Biblical account in saying that the Apostles were “full of the Holy Ghost” at the time of uttering this prayer: v. 31 says they were so filled afterwards.178:1070
Acts ii. 37-41.178:1071
Consecrando mysteriis I think he has, as so often, the institution of the Holy Eucharist especially in his mind together, of course, with other sacramental ordinances (such as Holy Baptism and matrimony) which our Saviour blessed with His sanction and made the means of holiness to His disciples.179:1072
Apocrypha, Sus. 56: said by Daniel to one of the two elders; cf. also Acts 9:15, John 17:12.179:1073
This last privilege which Leo, with curious sarcasm, co-ordinates with the other three is spoken of twice by S. John, viz. John 12:6, John 13:29.179:1074
Redemptorem etiam tuum ne tibi parceres, vendidisti. It seems to me that Leos preaching power is nowhere better shown than in the passages where he draws out the heinousness of Judas guilt: cf. Sermon LVIII. chaps. 3 and 4, and Sermon LXII. chap. 4.179:1075
Aliud est in sacramento, aliud in exemplo, cf. Serm. LXIII chap. 4, n. 7.179:1076
Exigantur: another reading perhaps more in keeping with the context and Leos usual language is erigantur (raised): cf. Lett. XXVIII. (Tome), chap. 3, humana augens, divina non minuens, etc.179:1077
Cf. 1 Cor. 4:7, 1 Tim. 4:14.179:1078
Cf. 1 Cor. 4:7, 1 Tim. 4:14.179:1079
Ps. xxii. 1.180:1080
S. Matt. 26:39, 42.
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