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Nicene and Ante-Nicene Fathers, Ser. II, Vol. XI:
The Works of John Cassian.: Chapter V. On the perfection of the soul, as drawn from the comparison of the Centurion in the gospel.

Early Church Fathers  Index     

Chapter V.

On the perfection of the soul, as drawn from the comparison of the Centurion in the gospel.

Of this perfect mind then there is an excellent figure drawn in the case of the centurion in the gospel; whose virtue and consistency, owing to which he was not led away by the rush of thoughts, but in accordance with his own judgment either admitted such as were good, or easily drove away those of the opposite character, are described in this tropical form: “For I also am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.” 1445 If then we too strive manfully against disturbances and sins and can bring them under our own control and discretion, and fight and destroy the passions in our flesh, and bring under the sway of reason p. 364 the swarm of our thoughts, and drive back from our breast the terrible hosts of the powers opposed to us by the life-giving standard of the Lord’s cross, we shall in reward for such triumphs be promoted to the rank of that centurion spiritually understood, who, as we read in Exodus, was mystically pointed to by Moses: “Appoint for thee rulers of thousands, and of hundreds, and of fifties and of tens.” 1446 And so we too when raised to the height of this dignity shall have the same right and power to command, so that we shall not be carried away by thoughts against our will, but shall be able to continue in and cling to those which spiritually delight us, commanding the evil suggestions to depart, and they will depart, while to good ones we shall say “Come,” and they will come: and to our servant also, i.e., the body, we shall in like manner enjoin what belongs to chastity and continence, and it will serve us without any gainsaying, no longer arousing in us the hostile incitements of concupiscence, but showing all subservience to the spirit. And what is the character of the arms of this centurion, and for what use in battle they are, hear the blessed Apostle declaring: “The arms,” he says “of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty to God.” He tells us their character; viz., that they are not carnal or weak, but spiritual and mighty to God. Then he next suggests in what struggles they are to be used: “Unto the pulling down of fortifications, purging the thoughts, and every height that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ, and having in readiness to avenge all disobedience, when your obedience shall be first fulfilled.” 1447 And since though useful, it yet belongs to another time to run through these one by one, I only want you to see the different sorts of these arms and their characteristics, as we also ought always to walk with them girt upon us if we mean to fight the Lord’s battles and to serve among the centurions of the gospel. “Take,” he says “the shield of faith, wherewith ye may be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one.” 1448 Faith then is that which intercepts the flaming darts of lust, and destroys them by the fear of future judgment, and belief in the heavenly kingdom. “And the breastplate,” he says, “of charity.” 1449 This indeed is that which going round the vital parts of the breast and protecting what is exposed to the deadly wounds of swelling thoughts, keeps off the blows opposed to it, and does not allow the darts of the devil to penetrate to our inner man. For it “endureth all things, suffereth all things, beareth all things.” 1450 “And for an helmet the hope of salvation.” 1451 The helmet is what protects the head. As then Christ is our head, we ought always in all temptations and persecutions to protect it with the hope of future good things to come, and especially to keep faith in Him whole and undefiled. For it is possible for one who has lost other parts of the body, weak as he may be, still to survive: but even a short time of living is extended to no one without a head. “And the sword of the Spirit which is the word of God.” 1452 For it is “sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing even to the dividing of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart:” 1453 as it divides and cuts off whatever carnal and earthly things it may find in us. And whosoever is protected by these arms will ever be defended from the weapons and ravages of his foes, and will not be led away bound in the chains of his spoilers, a captive and a prisoner, to the hostile land of vain thoughts, nor hear the words of the prophet: “Why art thou grown old in a strange country?” 1454 But he will stand like a triumphant conqueror in the land of thoughts which he has chosen. Would you understand too the strength and courage of this centurion, by which he bears these arms of which we spoke before as not carnal but mighty to God? Hear of the selection by which the King himself marks and approves brave men when he summons them to the spiritual combat. “Let,” says He, “the weak say that I am strong;” and: “Let him who is the sufferer become a warrior.” 1455 You see then that none but sufferers and weak people can fight the Lord’s battles, weak indeed with that weakness, founded on which that centurion of ours in the gospel said with confidence: “For when I am weak, then am I strong,” and again, “for strength is made perfect in weakness.” 1456 Of which weakness one of the prophets says: “And he that is weak among them shall be as the house of David.” 1457 For the patient sufferer shall fight these wars, with that patience of which it is said “patience is necessary for you that doing the will of God you may receive the reward.” 1458



S. Matt. viii. 9.


Exod. viii. 21.


1 Cor. x. 4-6.


Eph. vi. 16.


1 Thess. v. 8.


1 Cor. xiii. 7.


1 Thess. v. 8.


Eph. vi. 17.


Heb. iv. 12.


Baruch iii. 11.


Joel 2:10, 11 (LXX.).


2 Cor. 12:9, 10.


Zech. xii. 8.


Heb. x. 36.

Next: Chapter VI. Of perseverance as regards care of the thoughts.

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