p. 149 Letter LXX. To Magnus an Orator of Rome.
Jerome thanks Magnus, a Roman orator, for his services in bringing a young man named Sebesius to apologize to him for some fault that he had committed. He then replies to a criticism of Magnus on his fondness for making quotations from profane writers, a practice which he defends by the example of the fathers of the church and of the inspired penmen of scripture. He ends by hinting that the objection really comes not from Magnus himself but from Rufinus (here nicknamed Calpurnius Lanarius). The date of the letter is 397 a.d.
1. That our friend Sebesius has profited by your advice I have learned less from your letter than from his own penitence. And strange to say the pleasure which he has given me since his rebuke is greater than the pain he caused me from his previous waywardness. There has been indeed a conflict between indulgence in the father, and affection in the son; while the former is anxious to forget the past, the latter is eager to promise dutiful behaviour in the future. Accordingly you and I must equally rejoice, you because you have successfully put a pupil to the test, I because I have received a son again.
2. You ask me at the close of your letter why it is that sometimes in my writings I quote examples from secular literature and thus defile the whiteness of the church with the foulness of heathenism. I will now briefly answer your question. You would never have asked it, had not your mind been wholly taken up with Tully; you would never have asked it had you made it a practice instead of studying Volcatius 2128 to read the holy scriptures and the commentators upon them. For who is there who does not know that both in Moses and in the prophets there are passages cited from Gentile books and that Solomon proposed questions to the philosophers of Tyre and answered others put to him by them. 2129 In the commencement of the book of Proverbs he charges us to understand prudent maxims and shrewd adages, parables and obscure discourse, the words of the wise and their dark sayings; 2130 all of which belong by right to the sphere of the dialectician and the philosopher. The Apostle Paul also, in writing to Titus, has used a line of the poet Epimenides: “The Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.” 2131 Half of which line was afterwards adopted by Callimachus. It is not surprising that a literal rendering of the words into Latin should fail to preserve the metre, seeing that Homer when translated into the same language is scarcely intelligible even in prose. In another epistle Paul quotes a line of Menander: “Evil communications corrupt good manners.” 2132 And when he is arguing with the Athenians upon the Areopagus he calls Aratus as a witness citing from him the words “For we are also his offspring;” 2133 in Greek τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμεν, the close of a heroic verse. And as if this were not enough, that leader of the Christian army, that unvanquished pleader for the cause of Christ, skilfully turns a chance inscription into a proof of the faith. 2134 For he had learned from the true David to wrench the sword of the enemy out of his hand and with his own blade to cut off the head of the arrogant Goliath. 2135 He had read in Deuteronomy the command given by the voice of the Lord that when a captive woman had had her head shaved, her eyebrows and all her hair cut off, and her nails pared, she might then be taken to wife. 2136 Is it surprising that I too, admiring the fairness of her form and the grace of her eloquence, desire to make that secular wisdom which is my captive and my handmaid, a matron of the true Israel? Or that shaving off and cutting away all in her that is dead whether this be idolatry, pleasure, error, or lust, I take her to myself clean and pure and beget by her servants for the Lord of Sabaoth? My efforts promote the advantage of Christs family, my so-called defilement with an alien increases the number of my fellow-servants. Hosea took a wife of whoredoms, Gomer the daughter of Diblaim, and this harlot bore him a son called Jezreel or the seed of God. 2137 Isaiah speaks of a sharp razor which shaves “the head of sinners and the hair of their feet;” 2138 and Ezekiel shaves his head as a type of that Jerusalem which has been an harlot, 2139 in sign that whatever in her is devoid of sense and life must be removed.
3. Cyprian, a man renowned both for his eloquence and for his martyrs death, was assailed—so Firmian tells us 2140 —for having used in his treatise against Demetrius passages from the Prophets and the Apostles which the latter declared to be fabricated and made up, instead of passages from the philosophers and poets whose authority he, as a heathen, could not well gainsay. Celsus 2141 and Porphyry 2142 have written against us and have been ably answered, the former by Origen, the latter by Methodius, Eusebius, and Apollinaris. 2143 Origen wrote a treatise in eight books, the work of p. 150 Methodius 2144 extended to ten thousand lines while Eusebius 2145 and Apollinaris 2146 composed twenty-five and thirty volumes respectively. Read these and you will find that compared with them I am a mere tyro in learning, and that, as my wits have long lain fallow, I can barely recall as in a dream what I have learned as a boy. The emperor Julian 2147 found time during his Parthian campaign to vomit forth seven books against Christ and, as so often happens in poetic legends, only wounded himself with his own sword. Were I to try to confute him with the doctrines of philosophers and stoics you would doubtless forbid me to strike a mad dog with the club of Hercules. It is true that he presently felt in battle the hand of our Nazarene or, as he used to call him, the Galilæan, 2148 and that a spear-thrust in the vitals paid him due recompense for his foul calumnies. To prove the antiquity of the Jewish people Josephus 2149 has written two books against Appio a grammarian of Alexandria; and in these he brings forward so many quotations from secular writers as to make me marvel how a Hebrew brought up from his childhood to read the sacred scriptures could also have perused the whole library of the Greeks. Need I speak of Philo 2150 whom critics call the second or the Jewish Plato?
4. Let me now run through the list of our own writers. Did not Quadratus 2151 a disciple of the apostles and bishop of the Athenian church deliver to the Emperor Hadrian (on the occasion of his visit to the Eleusinian mysteries) a treatise in defence of our religion. And so great was the admiration caused in everyone by his eminent ability that it stilled a most severe persecution. The philosopher Aristides, 2152 a man of great eloquence, presented to the same Emperor an apology for the Christians composed of extracts from philosophic writers. His example was afterwards followed by Justin 2153 another philosopher who delivered to Antoninus Pius and his sons 2154 and to the senate a treatise Against the Gentiles, in which he defended the ignominy of the cross and preached the resurrection of Christ with all freedom. Need I speak of Melito 2155 bishop of Sardis, of Apollinaris 2156 chief-priest of the Church of Hierapolis, of Dionysius 2157 bishop of the Corinthians, of Tatian, 2158 of Bardesanes, 2159 of Irenæus 2160 successor to the martyr Pothinus; 2161 all of whom have in many volumes explained the uprisings of the several heresies and tracked them back, each to the philosophic source from which it flows. Pantænus, 2162 a philosopher of the Stoic school, was on account of his great reputation for learning sent by Demetrius bishop of Alexandria to India, to preach Christ to the Brahmans and philosophers there. Clement, 2163 a presbyter of Alexandria, in my judgment the most learned of men, wrote eight books of Miscellanies 2164 and as many of Outline Sketches, 2165 a treatise against the Gentiles, and three volumes called the Pedagogue. Is there any want of learning in these, or are they not rather drawn from the very heart of philosophy? Imitating his example Origen 2166 wrote ten books of Miscellanies, in which he compares together the opinions held respectively by Christians and by philosophers, and confirms all the dogmas of our religion by quotations from Plato and Aristotle, from Numenius 2167 and Cornutus. 2168 Miltiades 2169 also wrote an excellent treatise against the Gentiles. Moreover Hippolytus 2170 and a Roman senator named Apollonius 2171 have each compiled apologetic works. The books of Julius Africanus 2172 who wrote a history of his own times are still extant, as also are those of Theodore who was afterwards called Gregory, 2173 p. 151 a man endowed with apostolic miracles as well as with apostolic virtues. We still have the works of Dionysius 2174 bishop of Alexandria, of Anatolius 2175 chief priest of the church of Laodicea, of the presbyters Pamphilus, 2176 Pierius, 2177 Lucian, 2178 Malchion; 2179 of Eusebius 2180 bishop of Cæsarea, Eustathius 2181 of Antioch and Athanasius 2182 of Alexandria; of Eusebius 2183 of Emisa, of Triphyllius 2184 of Cyprus, of Asterius 2185 of Scythopolis, of the confessor Serapion, 2186 of Titus 2187 bishop of Bostra; and of the Cappadocians Basil, 2188 Gregory, 2189 and Amphilochius. 2190 All these writers so frequently interweave in their books the doctrines and maxims of the philosophers that you might easily be at a loss which to admire most, their secular erudition or their knowledge of the scriptures.
5. I will pass on to Latin writers. Can anything be more learned or more pointed than the style of Tertullian? 2191 His Apology and his books Against the Gentiles contain all the wisdom of the world. Minucius Felix 2192 a pleader in the Roman courts has ransacked all heathen literature to adorn the pages of his Octavius and of his treatise Against the astrologers (unless indeed this latter is falsely ascribed to him). Arnobius 2193 has published seven books against the Gentiles, and his pupil Lactantius 2194 as many, besides two volumes, one on Anger and the other on the creative activity of God. If you read any of these you will find in them an epitome of Ciceros dialogues. The Martyr Victorinus 2195 though as a writer deficient in learning is not deficient in the wish to use what learning he has. Then there is Cyprian. 2196 With what terseness, with what knowledge of all history, with what splendid rhetoric and argument has he touched the theme that idols are no Gods! Hilary 2197 too, a confessor and bishop of my own day, has imitated Quintilians twelve books both in number and in style, and has also shewn his ability as a writer in his short treatise against Dioscorus the physician. In the reign of Constantine the presbyter Juvencus 2198 set forth in verse the story of our Lord and Saviour, and did not shrink from forcing into metre the majestic phrases of the Gospel. Of other writers dead and living I say nothing. Their aim and their ability are evident to all who read them. 2199
6. You must not adopt the mistaken opinion, that while in dealing with the Gentiles one may appeal to their literature in all other discussions one ought to ignore it; for almost all the books of all these writers—except those who like Epicurus 2200 are no scholars—are extremely full of erudition and philosophy. I incline indeed to fancy—the thought comes into my head as I dictate—that you yourself know quite well what has always been the practice of the learned in this matter. I believe that in putting this question to me you are only the mouthpiece of another who by reason of his love for the histories of Sallust might well be called Calpurnius Lanarius. 2201 Please beg of him not to envy eaters their teeth because he is toothless himself, and not to make light of the eyes of gazelles because he is himself a mole. Here as you see there is abundant material for discussion, but I have already filled the limits at my disposal.
1 Cor. xv. 33. The line is also attributed to Euripides.149:2133 149:2134 149:2135 149:2136 149:2137 149:2138 149:2139 149:2140 149:2141 149:2142 149:2143 150:2144 150:2145 150:2146 150:2147 150:2148 150:2149 150:2150 150:2151
The author of an apology for the Christians presented to the Emperor Hadrian. Only small fragments of the work are now extant. See for him and Aristides Jeromes Book on Famous Men, in Vol. iii. of this series, c. xix. xx.150:2152 150:2153 150:2154 150:2155 150:2156 150:2157 150:2158 150:2159 150:2160 150:2161 150:2162 150:2163 150:2164 150:2165 150:2166 150:2167 150:2168 150:2169 150:2170 150:2171 150:2172 150:2173 151:2174 151:2175 151:2176 151:2177 151:2178 151:2179 151:2180 151:2181 151:2182 151:2183 151:2184 151:2185 151:2186 151:2187 151:2188 151:2189 151:2190 151:2191 151:2192 151:2193 151:2194 151:2195 151:2196 151:2197 151:2198 151:2199 151:2200 151:2201
That Rufinus is the person meant is plain from a reference made to this passage in Apol. adv. Rufinum, i. 30 and also from Letter CII. § 3. Jerome is however mistaken in connecting this Calpurnius with Sallust. He is mentioned by Plutarch as a treacherous friend. Sallust does mention a certain Calpurinus Bestia, and Jerome has probably confounded the two.
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