“Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned, and avoid them. For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.”
Again an exhortation, and prayer after the exhortation. For after telling them to “mark them which cause 1697 divisions,” and not to listen to them, he proceeds, “And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly:” and, “The grace of our Lord be with you.” And notice how gently too he exhorts them: doing it not in the character of a counsellor, but that of a servant, and with much respect. For he calls them brethren, and supplicates them likewise. For, “I beseech you, brethren,” (he says). Then he also puts them on the defensive by showing the deceitfulness of those who abused them. For as though they were not at once to be discerned, he says, “I beseech you to mark,” that is, to be exceedingly particular about, and to get acquainted with, and to search out thoroughly—whom, pray? why, “those that cause divisions and offences, contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned.” 1698 For this is, if anything the subversion of the Church, the being in divisions. This is the devils weapon, this turneth all things upside-down. For so long as the body is joined into one, he has no power to get an entrance, but it is from division that the offence cometh. And whence is division? From opinions contrary to the teaching of the Apostles. And whence come opinions of this sort? From mens being slaves to the belly, and the other passions. For “such,” he says, “serve not the Lord, but their own belly.” And so there would be no offence, there would be no division, unless some opinion were thought of contrary to the doctrine of the Apostles. And this he here points out by saying, “contrary to the doctrine.” And he does not say which we have taught, but “which ye have learned,” so anticipating them, and showing that they were persuaded of and had heard them and received them. And what are we to do to those who make mischief in this way? He does not say have a meeting and come to blows, but “avoid them.” For if it was from ignorance or error that they did this, one ought to set them right. But if they sin willingly, spring away from them. And in another place too he says this. For he says, “Withdraw from every brother that walketh disorderly” (2 Thess. iii. 6): and in speaking to Timothy about the coppersmith, he gives him the like advice, and says, “Of whom be thou ware also.” (2 Tim. iv. 15.) Then also to lash (κωμῳδὥν) those who dare to do such things, he mentions also the reason of their devising this division. “For they that are such,” he says, “serve not our Lord Christ, but their own belly.” And this he said too when he wrote to the Philippians, “Whose god is their belly.” (Phil. iii. 19.) But here he appears to me to intimate those of the Jews, whom he ever uses particularly to find fault with as gluttonous. For in writing to Titus too, he said of them, “Evil beasts, slow bellies.” (Titus 1:12, 10Tit. i. 12, see v. 10.) And Christ also blames them on this head: “Ye devour widows houses” (Matt. xxiii. 14), He says. And the Prophets accuse them of things of the kind. For, “My beloved,” He says, “hath waxen fat and gross, and hath kicked” (Deut. xxxii. 15). Wherefore also Moses exhorted them, and said, “When thou hast eaten and drunken and art full, remember the Lord thy God.” (Deut. 6:11, 12.) And in the Gospels, they who say to Christ, “What sign showest thou unto us?” (John vi. 30) pass over everything else, and remember the manna. So do they everywhere appear to be possessed with this affection. How then comest thou not to be ashamed at having slaves of the belly for thy teachers, when thou art a brother of Christ? Now the ground of the error is this, but the mode of attack is again a different disorder, viz. flattery. For it is by “fair speeches,” he says, “that they deceive the hearts of the simple.” For their attention reaches only to words; but their meaning is not such, for it is full of fraud. And he does not say that they deceive you, but “the hearts of the simple.” And even with this he was not satisfied, but with a view to making this statement less grating, he says,
Rom. 16.19. “For your obedience is come abroad unto all men.”
This he does, not to leave them free to be shameless, but to win them beforehand with encomiums, and the number of his witnesses, to arrest their attention. For neither is it I alone that am the witness, but the whole world. And he does not say for your understanding, but, “your obedience:” that is, their compliance, which was evidence of much meekness in them. “I am glad therefore on your behalf.” And this is no small encomium too. Then, after the praise, admonition. For lest, after liberating them from any charges against them, he should make them the more listless, as not being observed; he gives them another hint in the words,
Rom. 16.20. “And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly.”
For since he had spoken of those who “caused divisions and offences among them,” he has mentioned “the God of peace” also, that they might feel hopeful about the riddance of these evils. For he that rejoiceth in this (i.e., peace) will put an end to that which makes havoc of it. And he does not say, will subject, but “will bruise” (Gen. iii. 19), which is a stronger expression. And not those people only, but also him who was the general over them herein, Satan. And not “will bruise” merely, but “under your feet,” so that they may obtain the victory themselves, and become noble by the trophy. And the time again is made a ground of comfort. For he adds, “shortly.” And this was prayer and prophecy as well at once. “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.”
That greatest weapon; that impregnable wall; that tower unshaken! For he reminds them of the grace, that he may give them the more alacrity. Because if ye have been freed from the ills more grievous by far, and freed by grace only, much more will ye be freed from the lesser, now ye have become friends too, and contribute your own share likewise. You see how he neither puts prayer without works, nor works without prayer. For after giving them credit for their obedience, than he prays; to show that we need both, our own part as well as Gods part, if we are to be duly saved. For it was not before only, but now too, even though we be great and in high esteem, we need grace from Him.
Rom. 16.21. “Timotheus my work-fellow saluteth you.”
This Jason Luke also mentions, and sets before us his manliness also, when he says, that “they drew” him “to the rulers of the city, crying,” etc. (Acts xvii. 5.) And it is likely that the others too were men of note. For he does not mention relations barely, unless they were also like him in religiousness.
Rom. 16.22. “I Tertius, who wrote this Epistle, salute you.”
This too is no small encomium, to be Pauls amanuensis. Still it is not to pass encomiums on himself that he says this, but that he might attach a warm love to him on their part, for this ministration.
Rom. 16.23. “Gaius mine host (ξένος), and of the whole Church, saluteth you.”
See what a crown he has framed for him by bearing witness to such great hospitality in him, and brought in the entire Church into this mans house! For by the word ξένον, used here, he means a host, not a guest. But when you hear that he was Pauls host, do not admire him for his munificence only, but also for his strictness of life. For except he were worthy of Pauls excellency, he would never have lodged there, since he, who took pains to go beyond 1699 many of Christs commands, would never have trespassed against that law, which bids us be very particular about who receive us, and about lodging with “worthy” persons. (Matt. x. 11.) “Erastus, the chamberlain of the city, salutes you, and Quartus a brother.” There is a purpose in his adding “the chamberlain of the city,” for as he wrote to the Philippians, “They of Cæsars household salute you” (Phil. iv. 22), that he might show that the Gospel had taken a hold upon great folk, so here too he mentions the title with a view to the same object, and to show that, to the man who gives heed, neither riches are a hindrance, nor the cares of government, nor anything else of the kind.
See what we ought to begin and to end with everywhere! For in this he laid the foundation of the Epistle, and in this he putteth on the roof, at once praying for the mother of all good things for them, and calling the whole of his loving-kindness to their mind. For this is the best proof of a generous teacher, to benefit his learners not by word only, but likewise by prayer, for which cause also one said, “But let us give ourselves continually to prayers, and to the ministry of the word.” (Acts vi. 4.)
Who is there then to pray over us, since Paul hath departed? These who 1701 are the imitators of Paul. Only let us yield ourselves worthy of such intercession (συνηγορίας), that it may not be that we hear Pauls voice here only, but that hereafter, when we are departed, we may be counted worthy to see the wrestler of Christ. 1702 Or rather, if we hear him here, we shall certainly see him hereafter, if not as standing near him, yet see him we certainly shall, glistening near the Throne of the king. 1703 Where the Cherubim sing the glory, where the Seraphim are flying, there shall we see Paul, with Peter, and as a chief 1704 and leader of the choir of the Saints, and shall enjoy his generous love. For if when here he loved men so, that when he had the choice of departing and being with Christ, he chose to be here, much more will he there display a warmer affection. I love Rome even for this, although indeed one has other grounds for praising it, both for its greatness, and its antiquity, and its beauty, and its populousness, and for its power, and its wealth, and for its successes in war. But I let all this pass, and esteem it blessed on this account, that both in his lifetime he wrote to them, and loved them so, and talked with them whiles he was with us, and brought his life to a close there. 1705 Wherefore the city is more notable upon this ground, than upon all others together. And as a body great and strong, it hath as two glistening eyes the bodies of these Saints. Not so bright is the heaven, when the sun sends forth his rays, as is the city of Rome, sending out these two lights into all parts of the world. From thence will Paul be caught up, from thence Peter. Just bethink you, and shudder (φρίξατε) at the thought of what a sight Rome will see, when Paul ariseth suddenly from that deposit, together with Peter, and is lifted up to meet the Lord. (1 Thess. iv. 17.) What a rose will Rome send up to Christ! (Is. xxxv. 1) what two crowns will the city have about it! what golden chains will she be girded with! what fountains possess! Therefore I admire the city, not for the much gold, not for the columns, not for the other display there, but for these pillars of the Church. (1 Cor. xv. 38.) Would that it were now given me to throw myself round (περιχυθἥναι) the body of Paul, and be riveted to the tomb, and to see the dust of that body that “filled up that which was lacking” after “Christ” (Col. i. 24), that bore “the marks” (στίγματα,) (Gal. vi. 17) that sowed the Gospel everywhere yea, the dust of that body through which he ran to and fro everywhere! the dust of that body through which Christ spoke, and the Light shone forth more brilliant than any lightning, and the voice started out, more awful than any thunder to the devils! through which he uttered that blessed voice, saying, “I could wish that myself were accursed, for my brethren” (Rom. ix. 3), through which he spake “before kings, and was not ashamed!” (Ps. cxix. 46) through which we come to know Paul through which also Pauls Master! Not so awful to us is the thunder, as was that voice to the demons! For if they shuddered at his clothes (Acts xix. 12), much more did they at his voice. This led them away captive, this cleansed out the world, this put a stop to diseases, cast out vice, lifted the truth on high, had Christ riding 1706 upon it, and everywhere went about with Him; and what the Cherubim were, this was Pauls voice, for as He was seated upon those Powers, so was He upon Pauls tongue. For it had become worthy of receiving Christ, by speaking those things only which were acceptable to Christ, and flying as the Seraphim to height unspeakable! for what more lofty than that voice which says, “For I am persuaded that neither Angels, nor Principalities, nor Powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus?” (Rom. 8:38, 39.) What pinions doth not this discourse seem to thee to have? what eyes? (Ez. x. 12.) It was owing to this that he said, “for we are not ignorant of his devices.” (2 Cor. ii. 11.) Owing to this did the devils flee not only at hearing him speak, but even at seeing his garments. This is the mouth, the dust whereof I would fain see, through which Christ spake the great and secret things, and greater than in His own person, (for as He wrought, so He also spake greater things by the disciples, 1707 ) through which the Spirit gave those wondrous oracles to the world! For what good thing did not that mouth effect? Devils it drave out, sins it loosed, tyrants it muzzled, philosophers mouths it stopped, the world it brought over to God, savages it persuaded to learn wisdom, all the whole order of the earth it altered. Things in Heaven too it disposed what way it listed (1 Cor. 5:3, 4), binding whom it would, and loosing in the other world, “according unto the power given unto it.” (2 Cor. xiii. 10.) Nor is it that mouth only, but the heart too would fain see the dust of, which a man would not do wrong to call the heart of the world, and a fountain of countless blessings, and a beginning, and element of our life. For the spirit of life was furnished out of it all, and was distributed through the members of Christ, not as being sent forth by arteries, but by a free choice of good deeds. This heart was so large, as to take in entire cities, and peoples, and nations. “For my heart” he says, “is enlarged.” (2 Cor. 6.11.) Yet even a heart thus large, did this very charity that enlarged it many a time straiten and oppress. For he says, “Out of much affliction (θλίψεως) and anguish (συνοχἥς) of heart I wrote unto you.” (2 Cor. 2.4.) I were desirous to see that heart even after its dissolution, which burned at each one that was lost, which travailed a second time with the children that had proved abortions (Gal. iv. 19), which saw God, 1708 (“for the pure in heart,” He says, “shall see God,”) (Matt. v. 8) which became a Sacrifice, (“for a sacrifice to God is a contrite heart,”) (Ps. li. 17) which was loftier than the heavens, which was wider than the world, which was brighter than the suns beam, which was warmer than fire, which was stronger than adamant, which sent forth rivers, (“for rivers,” it says, “of living water shall flow out of his belly,”) (John vii. 38) wherein was a fountain springing up, and watering, not the face of the earth, but the souls of men, whence not rivers only, but even fountains of 1709 tears, issued day and night, which lived the new life, not this of ours, (for “I live,” he says, “yet not I, but Christ liveth in me,” (Gal. ii. 20) so Pauls heart was His heart, and a tablet of the Holy Spirit, and a book of grace); which trembled for the sins of others, (for I fear, he says, lest by any means “I have bestowed labor upon you in vain; (Gal. 4.11) lest as the serpent beguiled Eve; (2 Cor. xi. 3) lest when I come I should find you not such as I would;”) (2 Cor. 12.20) which both feared for itself, and was confiding too, (for I fear, he says, “lest by any means after having preached to others I myself should be a castaway,” (1 Cor. ix. 27) And, “I am persuaded that neither angels nor powers shall be able to separate us;”) (alluding to Rom. ix. 3) which was counted worthy to love Christ as no other man loved Him: which despised death and hell, yet was broken down by brothers tears, (for he says, “what mean ye to weep and to break mine heart?”) (Acts xxi. 13) which was most enduring, and yet could not bear to be absent from the Thessalonians by the space of an hour! (1 Thess. ii. 17; iii. 10.) Fain would I see the dust of hands that were in a chain, through the imposition of which the Spirit was furnished, through which the divine writings were written, (for “behold how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand:” (Gal. vi. 11) and again, “The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand,”) (1 Cor. xvi. 21) of those hands at the sight of which the serpent “fell off into the fire.” (Acts xxviii. 5.) Fain would I see the dust of those eyes which were blinded gloriously, which recovered their sight again for the salvation of the world; which even in the body were counted worthy to see Christ, which saw earthly things, yet saw them not, which saw the things which are not seen, which saw not sleep, which were watchful at midnight, which were not effected as eyes are. 1710 I would also see the dust of those feet, which ran through the world and were not weary; which were bound in the stocks when the prison shook, which went through parts habitable or uninhabited, which walked on so many journeys. And why need I speak of single parts? Fain would I see the tomb, where the armor of righteousness is laid up, the armor of light, the limbs which now live, but which in life were made dead; and in all whereof Christ lived, which were crucified to the world, which were Christs members, which were clad in Christ, were a temple of the Spirit, an holy building, “bound in the Spirit,” (Acts xx. 22) riveted to the fear of God, which had the marks of Christ. This body is a wall to that City, which is safer than all towers, and than thousands of battlements. And with it is that of Peter. For he honored him while alive. For he “went up to see Peter,” (Gal. i. 18) and therefore even when departed grace deigned to give him the same abode with him. Fain would I see the spiritual Lion. For as a lion breathing (Gr. sending,) (Song of Sol. 2.15) forth fire (πὕρ ἀφιεὶς) upon the herds of foxes, so rushed he upon the clan of demons and philosophers, and as the burst of some thunderbolt, was borne down into the host of the devil. (Luke xiii. 32.) For he did not even come to set the battle in array against him, since he feared so and trembled at him, as that if he saw his shadow, and heard his voice, he fled even at a distance. And so did he deliver over to him the fornicator, though at a distance, and again snatched him out of his hands (1 Cor. 5:5, 2 Cor. 2:7, 11); and so others also, that they might be taught “not to blaspheme.” (1 Tim. i. 20.) And consider how he sent forth his own liegemen against him, rousing them, suppling them. And at one time he says to the Ephesians, “We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities and powers.” (Eph. vi. 12.) Then too he puts our prize in heavenly places. For we struggle not for things of the earth, he says, but for Heaven, and the things in the Heavens. And to others, he says, “Know ye not that we shall judge Angels? how much more the things of this life?” (1 Cor. vi. 3.) Let us then, laying all this to heart, stand nobly; for Paul was a man, partaking of the same nature with us, and having everything else in common with us. But because he showed such great love toward Christ, he went up above the Heavens, and stood with the Angels. And so if we too would rouse ourselves up some little, and kindle in ourselves that fire, we shall be able to emulate that holy man. For were this impossible, he would never have cried aloud, and said, “Be ye imitators of me, as I am of Christ.” (1 Cor. xi. 1.) Let us not then admire him only, or be struck with him only, but imitate him, that we too may, when we depart hence, be counted worthy to see him, and to share the glory unutterable, which God grant that we may all attain to by the grace and love toward man of our Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom, and with Whom, be glory to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, now and evermore. Amen.
At Rome also there were, as in so many other places, those who, either within or in contact with the church, made divisions and perverted the true Christian teaching. The Epistle to the Romans deals but to a small extent directly with these persons. It is, in the main, constructive. Galatians is a letter on similar lines of teaching but more polemic in character. In the case of how few of the churches to which the apostle wrote could he spare himself the unpleasant task of warning them against heretics or immoral tendencies of life. In Corinth the abuses were chiefly of a moral and practical character. In Colossæ and perhaps in Ephesus, there was a Judeo-Gnostic theosophy which threatened the Christian faith of the people. The Roman church was, probably, predominantly Gentile and was a Pauline church, in the sense, that, though not founded by Paul, it had been trained in the Pauline “gospel,” the type of doctrine more or less peculiar to that apostle. The extended refutation of Jewish claims to special divine favor in Rom. 2:0, Rom. 3:0. as well as the consideration of the problem offered by the lapse of the Jews in Rom. 9:0, Rom. 10:0, Rom. 11:0., shows that there was an reportant Jewish element in the church, while these concluding warnings (Rom. 16:17, 18) intimate the presence of Judaizing heretics who sought to conceal their real wickedness by smooth and plausible language and thus to lead innocent and unsuspecting Christians astray.—G.B.S.i:1699 i:1700
The mss. authorities and vss. strongly favor the omission of Rom. 16.24 (as, A, B, C, א, Copt., Eth., Vulg.) It appears to be a repetition of the benediction in Rom. 16.20 and is omitted by most critics.—G.B.S.i:1701 i:1702 i:1703 i:1704
κορυφαῖον, not of the Apostles, but of the Saints in general. The manner in which St. Paul is coupled with St. Peter, is remarkable, as in the Roman Breviary, Vesp. et Laud. Commem. Com. de Apost. “Peter the Apostle, and Paul the Teacher of the Gentiles, these taught us Thy Law, O Lord. R. Thou shalt make them princes over all the earth.” In the York Breviary, F. SS. App. Petr. et Paul, ad Vesp. Hymn, St. 2. “These are the two olive trees before the Lord (Zech. iv. 3), and the candlesticks beaming with light, the two bright luminaries of Heaven.” And again, non impar Paulus huic. St. Augustin observes, ad Bonif. cont. du. Ep. Pelag. 1, 3, c. 3, Ben. t. 10. “When one says, The Apostle, without saying what Apostle, no one understands any but Paul, because he is best known from the number of his Epistles, and because he labored most.” St. Maximus, Hom. 5, de Nat. Petr. et Paul, “Therefore the blessed Peter and Paul are eminent among all, and have a kind of peculiar precedency, but between themselves, which is to be preferred to the other, is uncertain. For I think they are equal in merits because they are equal in suffering.” He also says in the same Homily, “To Peter, as to a good Steward, He gave the key of the Kingdom of Heaven. On Paul, as on an able Teacher, He enjoined the mastership in the teaching of the Church; that is, that whom the one has instructed unto salvation, the other may receive into rest; that whose hearts Paul hath opened by the teaching of his words, to their souls Peter may open the Kingdom of Heaven. For Paul too did also in a manner receive the key of knowledge from Christ.” And St. Gregory, 1, 1 Dial. c. 12. “The Apostle Paul is brother in Apostolical preëminence (principatu) to Peter, the first of the Apostles.” See also St. Chrys. on Gal. i. 18, p. 25 O.T. where he says, “equal in dignity with him, for at present I will say no more,” and Gal. ii. 8, p. 34 O.T.; Tertull. adv. Marcion. 1, 5, and others, consider him especially intended in Jacobs blessing of Benjamin. St. Cyr. Hier. Cat. vi. p. 68, O.T. speaks of “That goodly pair, Peter and Paul, the Rulers of the Church.” Many more passages might be cited, but these may suffice to show in what esteem St. Paul was held among the Fathers, and at the same time that this did not interfere with their view of the prerogatives of St. Peter.i:1705 i:1706 i:1707
Alluding to John xiv. 12; xvi. 12.i:1708 i:1709 i:1710
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