Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. X:Early Church Fathers Index Previous Next
The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom.: Homily XXXI
Matt. IX. 18.
“While He spake these things unto them, behold, there came in 1296 a ruler, and worshipped Him, saying, My daughter is even now dead; but come and lay Thy hand upon her, and she shall live.”
The deed overtook the words; so that the mouths of the Pharisees were the more stopped. For both he that came was a ruler of the synagogue, and his affliction terrible. For the young damsel was both his only child, and twelve years old, the very flower of her age; on which account especially He raised her up again, and that immediately.
And if Luke say that men came, saying, “Trouble not the Master, for she is dead;” 1297 we will say this, that the expression, “she is even now dead,” was that of one conjecturing from the time of his journeying, or exaggerating his affliction. For it is an usual thing with persons in need to heighten their own evils by their report, and to say something more than is really true, the more to attract those whom they are beseeching.
But see his dullness: how he requires of Christ two things, both His actual presence, and the laying on of His hand: and this by the way is a sign that he had left her still breathing. This Naaman also, that Syrian, required of the prophet. “For I thought,” saith he, “he will surely come out, and will lay on his hand.” 1298 For in truth they who are more or less dull of temper, require sight and sensible things.
And whereas Mark 1299 saith, He took the three disciples, and so doth Luke; 1300 our evangelist merely saith, “the disciples.” Wherefore then did He not take with Him Matthew, though he had but just come unto Him? To bring him to a more earnest longing, and because he was yet rather in an imperfect state. For to this intent doth He honor those, that these may grow such as those are. But for him it sufficed for the present, to see what befell the woman with the issue of blood, and to be honored by His table, and by His partaking of his salt.
And when He had risen up many followed Him, as for a great miracle, both on account of the person who had come, and because the more part being of a grosser disposition were seeking not so much the care of the soul, as the healing of the body; and they flowed together, some urged by their own afflictions, some hastening to behold how other mens were cured: however, there were as yet but few in the habit of coming principally for the sake of His words and doctrine. Nevertheless, He did not suffer them to enter into the house, but His disciples only; and not even all of these, everywhere instructing us to repel the applause of the multitude.
2. “And, behold,” it is said, “a woman that had an issue of blood twelve years, came behind Him, and touched the hem of His garment. For she said within herself, If I may but touch His garment, I shall be whole.” 1301
Wherefore did she not approach Him boldly? She was ashamed on account of her affliction, accounting herself to be unclean. For if the menstruous woman was judged not to be clean, much more would she have the same thought, who was afflicted with such a disease; since in fact that complaint was under the law accounted a great uncleanness. 1302 Therefore she lies hidden, and conceals herself. For neither had she as yet the proper and correct opinion concerning Him: else she p. 201 would not have thought to be concealed. And this is the first woman that came unto Him in public, having heard of course that He heals women also, and that He is on His way to the little daughter that was dead.
And she durst not invite Him to her house, although she was wealthy; 1303 nay, neither did she approach publicly, but secretly with faith she touched His garments. For she did not doubt, nor say in herself, “Shall I indeed be delivered from the disease? shall I indeed fail of deliverance?” But confident of her health, she so approached Him. “For she said,” we read, “in herself, If I may only touch His garment, I shall be whole.” Yea, for she saw out of what manner of house He was come, that of the publicans, and who they were that followed Him, sinners and publicans; and all these things made her to be of good hope.
What then doth Christ? He suffers her not to be hid, but brings her into the midst, and makes her manifest for many purposes.
It is true indeed that some of the senseless ones say, “He does this for love of glory. For why,” say they, “did He not suffer her to be hid?” What sayest thou, unholy, yea, all unholy one? He that enjoins silence, He that passes by miracles innumerable, is He in love with glory?
For what intent then doth He bring her forward? In the first place He puts an end to the womans fear, lest being pricked by her conscience, as having stolen the gift, she should abide in agony. In the second place, He sets her right, in respect of her thinking to be hid. Thirdly, He exhibits her faith to all, so as to provoke the rest also to emulation; and His staying of the fountains of her blood was no greater sign than He affords in signifying His knowledge of all things. Moreover the ruler of the synagogue, who was on the point of thorough unbelief, and so of utter ruin, He corrects by the woman. Since both they that came said, “Trouble not the Master, for the damsel is dead;” and those in the house laughed Him to scorn, when He said, “She sleepeth;” and it was likely that the father too should have experienced some such feeling. Therefore to correct this weakness beforehand, He brings forward the simple woman. For as to that ruler being quite of the grosser sort, hear what He saith unto him: “Fear not, do thou believe only, and she shall be made whole.” 1304
Thus He waited also on purpose for death to come on, and that then He should arrive; in order that the proof of the resurrection might be distinct. With this view He both walks more leisurely, and discourses more with the woman; that He might give time for the damsel to die, and for those to come, who told of it, and said, “Trouble not the Master.” 1305 This again surely the evangelist obscurely signifies, when he saith, “While He yet spake, there came from the house certain which said, Thy daughter is dead, trouble not the Master.” For His will was that her death should be believed, that her resurrection might not be suspected. And this He doth in every instance. So also in the case of Lazarus, He waited a first and a second and a third day. 1306
On account then of all these things He brings her forward, and saith, “Daughter, be of good cheer,” 1307 even as He had said also to the paralyzed person, “Son, be of good cheer.” Because in truth the woman was exceedingly alarmed; therefore He saith, “be of good cheer,” and He calls her “daughter;” for her faith had made her a daughter. After that comes also her praise: “Thy faith hath made thee whole.”
But Luke tells us also other things more than these concerning the woman. Thus, when she had approached Him, saith he, and had received her health, Christ did not immediately call her, but first He saith, “Which is he that touched me?” Then when Peter and they that were with Him said, Master, the multitude throng Thee, and press Thee, and sayest Thou, who touched me?” 1308 (which was a very sure sign both that He was encompassed with real flesh, and that He trampled on all vainglory, for they did not follow Him at all afar off, but thronged Him on every side); He for His part continued to say, “Somebody hath touched me, for I perceive that virtue is gone out of me;” 1309 answering after a grosser manner according to the impression of His hearers. But these things He said, that He might also induce her of herself to make confession. For on this account neither did He immediately convict her, in order that having signified that He knows all things clearly, He might induce her of her own accord to publish all, and work upon her to proclaim herself what had been done, and that He might not incur suspicion by saying it.p. 202
Seest thou the woman superior to the ruler of the synagogue? She detained Him not, she took no hold of Him, but touched Him only with the end of her fingers, and though she came later, she first went away healed. And he indeed was bringing the Physician altogether to his house, but for her a mere touch suffered. For though she was bound by her affliction, yet her faith had given her wings. And mark how He comforts her, saying, “Thy faith hath saved thee.” Now surely, had He drawn her forward for display, He would not have added this; but He saith this, partly teaching the ruler of the synagogue to believe, partly proclaiming the womans praise, and affording her by these words delight and advantage equal to her bodily health.
For that He did this as minded to glorify her, and to amend others, and not to show Himself glorious, is manifest from hence; that He indeed would have been equally an object of admiration even without this (for the miracles were pouring around Him faster than the snow-flakes, and He both had done and was to do far greater things than these): but the woman, had this not happened, would have gone away hid, deprived of those great praises. For this cause He brought her forward, and proclaimed her praise, and cast out her fear, (for “she came,” it is said, “trembling” 1310 ); and He caused her to be of good courage, and together with health of body, He gave her also other provisions for her journey, in that He said, “Go in peace.” 1311
3. “And when He came into the rulers house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, He saith unto them, Give place, for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed Him to scorn.” 1312
Noble tokens, surely, these, of the rulers of synagogues; in the moment of her death pipes and cymbals raising a dirge! What then doth Christ? All the rest He cast out, but the parents He brought in; to leave no room for saying that He healed her in any other way. And before her resurrection too, He raises her in His word; saying, “The maid is not dead, but sleepeth.” And in many instances besides He doeth this. As then on the sea He expels tumult from the mind of the by-standers, at the same time both signifying that it is easy for Him to raise the dead (which same thing He did with respect to Lazarus also, saying, “Our friend Lazarus sleepeth 1313 ;” and also teaching us not to fear death; for that it is not death, but is henceforth become a sleep. Thus, since He Himself was to die, He doth in the persons of others prepare His disciples beforehand to be of good courage, and to bear the end meekly. Since in truth, when He had come, death was from that time forward a sleep.
But yet they laughed Him to scorn: He however was not indignant at being disbelieved by those for whom He was a little afterwards to work miracles; neither did He rebuke their laughter, in order that both it and the pipes, and the cymbals, and all the other things, might be a sure proof of her death. For since for the most part, after the miracles are done, men disbelieve, He takes them beforehand by their own answers; which was done in the case both of Lazarus and of Moses. For to Moses first He saith, “What is that in thine hand?” 1314 in order that when he saw it become a serpent, He should not forget that it was a rod before, but being reminded of his own saying, might be amazed at what was done. And with regard to Lazarus He saith, “Where have ye laid him?” 1315 that they who had said, “Come and see,” and “he stinketh, for he hath been dead four days,” might no longer be able to disbelieve His having raised a dead man.
Seeing then the cymbals and the multitude, He put them all out, and in the presence of the parents works the miracle; not introducing another soul, but recalling the same that had gone out, and awakening her as it were out of a sleep.
And He holds her by the hand, assuring the beholders; so as by that sight to make a way for the belief of her resurrection. For whereas the father said, “Lay thy hand upon her;” 1316 He on His part doth somewhat more, for He lays no hand on her, but rather takes hold of her, and raises her, implying that to Him all things are ready. And He not only raises her up, but also commands to give her meat, that the event might not seem to be an illusion. And He doth not give it Himself, but commands them; as also with regard to Lazarus He said, “Loose him, and let him go,” 1317 and afterwards makes him partaker of His table. 1318 For so is He wont always to establish both points, making out with all completeness the demonstration alike of the death and of the resurrection.
But do thou mark, I pray thee, not her resurrection only, but also His commanding “to tell no man;” and by all learn thou this especially, His freedom from haughtiness p. 203 and vainglory. And withal learn this other thing also, that He cast them that were beating themselves out of the house, and declared them unworthy of such a sight; and do not thou go out with the minstrels, but remain with Peter, and John, and James.
For if He cast them out then, much more now. For then it was not yet manifest that death was become a sleep, but now this is clearer than the very sun itself. But is it that He hath not raised thy daughter now? But surely He will raise her, and with more abundant glory. For that damsel, when she had risen, died again; but thy child, if she rise again, abides thenceforth in immortal being.
4. Let no man therefore beat himself any more, nor wail, neither disparage Christs achievement. For indeed He overcame death. Why then dost thou wail for nought? The thing is become a sleep. Why lament and weep? Why, even if Greeks 1319 did this, they should be laughed to scorn; but when the believer behaves himself unseemly in these things, what plea hath he? What excuse will there be for them that are guilty of such folly, and this, after so long a time, and so clear proof of the resurrection?
But thou, as though laboring to add to the charge against thee, dost also bring us in heathen women singing dirges, to kindle thy feelings, and to stir up the furnace thoroughly: and thou hearkenest not to Paul, saying, “What concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?” 1320
And while the children of heathens, who know nothing of resurrection, do yet find words of consolation, saying, “Bear it manfully, for it is not possible to undo what hath taken place, nor to amend it by lamentations;” art not thou, who hearest sayings wiser and better than these, ashamed to behave thyself more unseemly than they? For we say not at all, “Bear it manfully, because it is not possible to undo what hath taken place,” but, “bear it manfully, because he will surely rise again;” the child sleeps and is not dead; he is at rest and hath not perished. For resurrection will be his final lot, and eternal life, and immortality, and an angels portion. Hearest thou not the Psalm that saith, “Return unto thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee?” 1321 God calleth it “bountiful dealing,” and dost thou make lamentation?
And what more couldest thou have done, if thou wert a foe and an enemy of the dead? Why, if there must be mourning, it is the devil that ought to mourn. He may beat himself, he may wail, at our journeying to greater blessings. This lamentation becomes his wickedness, not thee, who art going to be crowned and to rest. Yea, for death is a fair haven. Consider, at any rate, with how many evils our present life is filled; reflect how often thou thyself hast cursed our present life. For indeed things go on to worse, and from the very beginning thou wert involved in no small condemnation. For, saith He, “In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children;” and, “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread;” 1322 and, “In the world ye shall have tribulation.” 1323
But of our state there, no such word at all is spoken, but all the contrary; that “grief and sorrow and sighing have fled away.” 1324 And that “men shall come from the east and from the west, and shall recline in the bosoms of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob.” 1325 And that the region there is a spiritual bride-chamber, and bright lamps, and a translation to Heaven.
5. Why then disgrace the departed? Why dispose the rest to fear and tremble at death? Why cause many to accuse God, as though He had done very dreadful things? Or rather, why after this invite poor persons, and entreat priests to pray? 1326 “In order,” saith he, “that the dead may depart into rest; that he may find the Judge propitious.” For these things then art thou mourning and wailing? Thou art therefore fighting and warring with thyself: exciting a storm against thyself on account of his having entered into harbor.
“But what can I do?” saith he: “such a thing is nature.” The blame is not natures, neither doth it belong to the necessary consequence of the thing; but it is we that are turning all things upside down, are overcome with softness, are giving up our proper nobility, and are making the unbelievers worse. For how shall we reason with another concerning immortality? how shall we persuade the heathen, when we fear death, and shudder at it more than he? Many, for instance, among the Greeks 1327 although they knew nothing of course about immortality, have crowned themselves at the decrease of their children, and appeared in white garments, p. 204 that they might reap the present glory; but thou not even for the future glorys sake ceasest thy womans behavior and wailing.
But hast thou no heirs, nor any to succeed to thy goods? And which wouldest thou rather, that he should be heir of thy possessions, or of Heaven? And which didst thou desire, that he should succeed to the things that perish, which he must have let go soon after, or to things that remain, and are immoveable? Thou hadst him not for heir, but God had him instead of thee; he became not joint-heir with his own brethren, but he became “joint-heir with Christ.”
“But to whom,” saith he, “are we to leave our garments, to whom our houses, to whom our slaves and our lands?” To him again, and more securely than if he lived; for there is nothing to hinder. For if barbarians burn the goods of the departed together with them, much more were it a righteous thing for thee to send away with the dead what things he hath: not to be turned to ashes, like those, but to invest him with more glory; and that if he departed a sinner, it may do away his sins; 1328 but if righteous, that it may become an increase of reward and recompense.
But dost thou long to see him? Then live the same life with him, and thou wilt soon obtain that sacred vision.
And herewith consider this also, that though thou shouldest not hearken to us, thou wilt certainly yield to time. But no reward then for thee; for the consolation comes of the number of the days. Whereas if thou art willing now to command thyself, thou wilt gain two very great points: first, thou wilt deliver thyself from the intervening ills, next, thou wilt be crowned with the brighter crown from God. For indeed neither almsgiving nor anything else is nearly so great as bearing affliction meekly.
Bear in mind, that even the Son of God died: and He indeed for thee, but thou for thyself. And when He said, “If it be possible, let the cup pass from me,” 1329 and suffered pain, and was in agony, nevertheless He shunned not the end, but underwent it, and that with its whole course of exceeding woe. 1330 That is, He did by no means simply endure death, but the most shameful death; and before His death, stripes; and before His stripes, upbraidings, and jeers, and revilings; instructing thee to bear all manfully. And though He died, and put off His body, He resumed it again in greater glory, herein also holding out to thee good hopes. If these things be not a fable, lament not. If thou account these things to be sure, weep not; but if thou dost weep, how wilt thou be able to persuade the Greek that thou believest?
6. But even so doth the event still appear intolerable to thee? Well then, for this very cause it is not meet to lament for him, for he is delivered from many such calamities. Grudge not therefore against him, neither envy him: for to ask death for yourself because of his premature end, and to lament for him that he did not live to endure many such things, is rather the part of one grudging and envying.
And think not of this, that he will no more return home: but that thyself also art a little while after to go to him. Regard not this, that he returns here no more, but that neither do these things that are seen remain such as they are, but these too are being transformed. Yea, for heaven, and earth, and sea, and all, are being put together afresh, 1331 and then shalt thou recover thy child in greater glory.
And if indeed he departed a sinner, his wickedness is stayed; for certainly, had God known that he was being converted, He would not have snatched him away before his repentance: but if he ended his life righteous, he now possesses all good in safety. Whence it is manifest that thy tears are not of kindly affection, but of unreasoning passion. For if thou lovedst the departed, thou shouldest rejoice and be glad that he is delivered from the present waves.
For what is there more, I pray thee? What is there fresh and new? Do we not see the same things daily revolving? Day and night, night and day, winter and summer, summer and winter, and nothing more. And these indeed are ever the same; but our evils are fresh, and newer. Wouldest thou then have him every day drawing up more of these things, and abiding here, and sickening, and mourning, and in fear and trembling, and enduring some of the ills of life, dreading others lest he some time endure them? Since assuredly thou canst not say this, that one sailing over this great sea might possibly be free from despondency and cares, and from all other such things.
And withal take this also into account, that thou didst not bring him forth immortal; and that if he had not died now, he must have endured it soon after. But is it that thou hadst not thy fill of him? But thou wilt of a p. 205 certainty enjoy him there. But longest thou to see him here also? And what is there to hinder thee? For thou art permitted even here, if thou be watchful; for the hope of the things to come is clearer than sight.
But thou, if he were in some kings court wouldest not ever seek to see him, so long as thou heardest of his good report: and seeing him departed to the things that are far better, art thou faint-hearted about a little time; and that, when thou hast in his place one to dwell with thee?
But hast thou no husband? yet hast thou a consolation, even the Father of the orphans, and Judge of the widows. Hear even Paul pronouncing this widowhood blessed, and saying, “Now she that is a widow indeed and desolate, trusteth in the Lord.” 1332 Because such an one will appear more approved, evincing as she doth greater patience. Mourn not therefore for that which is thy crown, that for which thou demandest a reward.
Since thou hast also restored His deposit, if thou hast exhibited the very thing entrusted to thee. Be not in care any more, having laid up the possession in an inviolable treasure-house.
But if thou wouldest really learn, both what is our present being, and what our life to come; and that the one is a spiders web and a shadow, but the things there, all of them, immoveable and immortal; thou wouldest not after that want other arguments. For whereas now thy child is delivered from all change; if he were here, perhaps he might continue good, perhaps not so. Seest thou not how many openly cast off 1333 their own children? how many are constrained to keep them at home, although worse than the open outcasts?
Let us make account of all these things and practise self-command; for so shall we at once show regard to the deceased, and enjoy much praise from men, and receive from God the great rewards of patience, and attain unto the good things eternal; unto which may we all attain, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and might forever and ever. Amen.
[εελθν, “came in,” so Tischendorf, but the R.V. accepts the reading ε λθν, “there came one ruler.”—R.]200:1297
Luke viii. 49.200:1298
2 Kings v. 11, LXX.200:1299
Mark v. 37.200:1300
Luke viii. 51.200:1301
Matt. 9:21, 22. [R.V., “border” for “hem;” “do” for “may;” “made whole” for “whole”.]200:1302
Levit. xv. 25.201:1303
Eusebius, E. H., viii. 18, mentions a tradition that she belonged to Cæsarea Philippi, otherwise called Paneas, and that certain brazen statues of a man holding out his hand and a woman kneeling, which were there in his time, were set up at her expense, that being her native place. He adds, that a certain plant which grew by the Saviours statue, when it came to touch the hem of His garment, stopped growing and that it was endowed with virtue to cure all manner of diseases.201:1304
Luke viii. 50.201:1305
Mark 5:35, Luke 8:49.201:1306
John 11:6, 39.201:1307
Matt. 9:22, 2.201:1308
Luke viii. 45.201:1309
Luke viii. 46. [R.V., “power.”]202:1310
Luke viii. 47. [The English rendering has been modified to indicate more exactly the words cited.—R.]202:1311
Luke viii. 48.202:1312
Matt. 9:23, 24. [R.V., “the flute-players, and the crowds making a tumult.”]202:1313
John xi. 11.202:1314
Ex. iv. 2.202:1315
John 11:34, 39.202:1316
Matt. ix. 18.202:1317
John xi. 44.202:1318
John xii. 2.203:1319
[Probably “Gentiles” or “heathen” would be a better reading. The contrast is with “believer.”—R.]203:1320
2 Cor. vi. 15. [R.V., “unbeliever.”]203:1321
Ps. cxvi. 7.203:1322
Gen. 3:16, 19.203:1323
John xvi. 33.203:1324
Is. xxxv. 10.203:1325
Matt. viii. 11.203:1326
Because the feasts and prayers for the dead being supposed to benefit those only who have fallen asleep in the Lord, and whose final happiness was therefore sure, it was an inconsistency in those who celebrated them to sorrow as if they had no hope. See Bingham, b. xxiii. c. iii. secs. 13, 15.203:1327
Not that St. Chrysostom imagined that anything could be done to change the relative condition of those who have died in the favor or displeasure of God: see e.g., Hom. XXXVI. p. 506, ed. Field. Indeed, the same is implied in the words which immediately follow. “Dost thou long to see him? Then live the same life with him,” &c.204:1329
Matt. xxvi. 39.204:1330
μετ πολλ τ τραγδα.204:1331
1 Tim. v. 5. [R.V., “hath her hope set on God.” Chrysostom reads κριον, and Augustin followed the same reading.—R.]205:1333
Next: Homily XXXII
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