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Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol IX:
Epistle to Gregory and Origen's Commentary on the Gospel of John.: Chapter XXXIV

Early Church Fathers  Index     

34.  Christ as the First and the Last; He is Also What Lies Between These.

Further, we have to ask in what sense He is called in the Apocalypse the First and the Last, and how, in His character as the First, He is not the same as the Alpha and the beginning, while in His character as the Last He is not the same as the Omega and the end.  It appears to me, then, that the reasonp. 315 able beings which exist are characterized by many forms, and that some of them are the first, some the second, some the third, and so on to the last.  To pronounce exactly, however, which is the first, what kind of a being the second is, which may truly be designated third, and to carry this out to the end of the series, this is not a task for man, but transcends our nature.  We shall yet venture, such as we are, to stand still a little at this point, and to make some observations on the matter.  There are some gods of whom God is god, as we hear in prophecy, 4611 “Thank ye the God of gods,” and 4612 “The God of gods hath spoken, and called the earth.”  Now God, according to the Gospel, 4613 “is not the God of the dead but of the living.”  Those gods, then, are living of whom God is god.  The Apostle, too, writing to the Corinthians, says: 4614   “As there are gods many and lords many,” and so we have spoken of these gods as really existing.  Now there are, besides the gods of whom God is god, certain others, who are called thrones, and others called dominions, lordships, also, and powers in addition to these.  The phrase, 4615 “above every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come,” leads us to believe that there are yet others besides these which are less familiar to us; one kind of these the Hebrews called Sabai, from which Sabaoth was formed, who is their ruler, and is none other than God.  Add to all these the reasonable being who is mortal, man.  Now the God of all things made first in honour some race of reasonable beings; this I consider to be those who are called gods, and the second order, let us say, for the present, are the thrones, and the third, undoubtedly, the dominions.  And thus we come down in order to the last reasonable race, which, perhaps, cannot be any other than man.  The Saviour accordingly became, in a diviner way than Paul, all things to all, that He might either gain all or perfect them; it is clear that to men He became a man, and to the angels an angel.  As for His becoming man no believer has any doubt, but as to His becoming an angel, we shall find reason for believing it was so, if we observe carefully the appearances and the words of the angels, in some of which the powers of the angels seem to belong to Him.  In several passages angels speak in such a way as to suggest this, as when 4616 “the angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire.  And he said, I am the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob.”  But Isaiah also says: 4617    “His name is called Angel of Great Counsel.”  The Saviour, then, is the first and the last, not that He is not what lies between, but the extremities are named to show that He became all things.  Consider, however, whether the last is man, or the things said to be under the earth, of which are the demons, all of them or some.  We must ask, too, about those things which the Saviour became which He speaks of through the prophet David, 4618 “And I became as a man without any to help him, free among the dead.”  His birth from the Virgin and His life so admirably lived showed Him to be more than man, and it was the same among the dead.  He was the only free person there, and His soul was not left in hell.  Thus, then, He is the first and the last.  Again, if there be letters of God, as such there are, by reading which the saints may say they have read what is written on the tablets of heaven, these letters, by which heavenly things are to be read, are the notions, divided into small parts, into Α and so on to Ω, the Son of God.  Again, He is the beginning and the end, but He is this not in all His aspects equally.  For He is the beginning, as the Proverbs teach us, inasmuch as He is wisdom; it is written:  “The Lord founded Me in the beginning of His ways, for His works.”  In the respect of His being the Logos He is not the beginning.  “The Word was in the beginning.”  Thus in His aspects one comes first and is the beginning, and there is a second after the beginning, and a third, and so on to the end, as if He had said, I am the beginning. inasmuch as I am wisdom, and the second, perhaps, inasmuch as I am invisible, and the third in that I am life, for “what was made was life in Him.”  One who was qualified to examine and to discern the sense of Scripture might, no doubt, find many members of the series; I cannot say if he could find them all.  “The beginning and the end” is a phrase we usually apply to a thing that is a completed unity; the beginning of a house is its foundation and the end the parapet.  We cannot but think of this figure, since Christ is the stone which is the head of the corner, to the great unity of the body of the saved.  For Christ the only-begotten Son is all and in all, He is as the beginning in the man He assumed, He is present as the end in the last of the saints, and He is also in those between, or else He is present p. 316 as the beginning in Adam, as the end in His life on earth, according to the saying:  “The last Adam was made a quickening spirit.”  This saying harmonizes well with the interpretation we have given of the first and the last.



Ps. cxxxvi. 2.


Ps. l. 1.


Matt. xx. 2.


1 Cor. viii. 5.


Ephes. i. 21.


Exod. 3:2, 6.


Isa. ix. 6.


Ps. 88:4, 5.

Next: Chapter XXXV

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