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395 Lit., "hidden and enwrapt in darkness of nature," abdita et caligine involuta naturae,-the reading of all edd. except Hild. and Oehler, who follow the ms. abditae cal.-"enwrapt in darkness of hidden nature."

396 This has been supposed to refer to Heraclitus, as quoted by Clem. Alex., Stromata, v. p. 469 B., where his words are, "Neither God nor man made the world; but there was always, and is, and will be, an undying flame laying hold of its limits, and destroying them;" on which cf. p. 437. n. 8, supra. Here, of course, fire does not mean that perceived by the senses, but a subtle, all-penetrating energy.

397 Cf. ch. 52, p. 453.

398 Lit., "by ordinary necessity." The Stoics (Diog. Laert., vii. 134) said that the world was made by God working on uncreated matter, and that it was perishable (§ 141), because made through that of which perception could take cognizance. Cf. ch. 31, n. 9, p. 446.

399 Orelli thinks that there is here a confusion of the parts of the world with its elements, because he can nowhere find that any philosopher has fixed the number of the elements either above or below four. The Stoics, however (Diog. Laert., vii. 134), said "that the elements (a0rxa/j of the world are two-the active and passive;" while, of course, the cosmic theories of the early philosophers affirm that the world sprang from one, and it seems clear enough that Arnobius here uses the word "element" in this sense.

400 Lit., "its material."

401 A conjecture of Meursius adopted by Oehler, merely dropping u from aut-"or," which is read in the ms. and edd.

402 Lit., "refute falsities placed."

403 Cf. Cicero, de Nat. Deor., i. 1, 12, 19, 23, etc.

404 Lit., "something is given to them to life." So the Stoics taught, although Chrysippus (cf. n. 9, ch. 31, p. 446) held that only the souls of the wise remained at all after death.

405 The ms., first four edd., and Oehler read et rerum contrarietatibus dissonare-"and that they disagree from the oppositions of things." Hild. reads dissonora, a word not met with elsewhere, while the other edd. merely drop the last two letters, -re, as above; a reading suggested in the margin of Ursinus.

406 Lit., "a most vain thing," etc.

407 So the ms., LB., Elmenh., Hild., and Oehler, reading conjectamus, the other edd. reading commetamur or -imur-"measure," except Gelenius and Canterus, who read commentamur-"muse upon."

408 Lit., "audacity of."

409 Lit., "world which holds us."

410 The first five edd. insert the mark of interrogation after "hollow:" "Whether does a solid axis," etc.

411 So the edd. except. Hild., who retains the ms. reading in scientissime-"most unskilfully" (the others omitting in-), and Oehler, who changes e into i-"and being most witless show," etc.

412 Lit., "touch."

413 So the later edd., reading from the margin of Ursinus figi ? cur alia, for the ms. figuralia, except LB., which reads figurari-"be formed."

414 So the ms.; but all edd. except Hild. and Oehler omit nobis.

415 So the ms., reading , followed by LB.

416 Salsa, corrected from the ms. sola.

417 Alites et volucres; i.e., according to Orelli, the birds from whose flight auguries were drawn, as opposed to the others.

418 So Heraldus, whose punctuation also is here followed, omitting id est sapor-"that is, taste," which Meursius and LB., followed by Orelli, amend, ut est-"as taste is" in each thing.

419 Vel is here inserted in all edd., most of which read, as above, oloris, which is found in the ms., in later writing, for the original, coloris-"colour," retained by Ursinus, LB., and Oehler.

420 Lit., "that the nature of man is."

421 So the ms., according to Crusius, reading nec pro suis; while, according to Hild., the reading is prorsus-"and are utterly without hesitation," adopted in the edd. with the substitution of et for nec-"and that they altogether hesitate," which, besides departing from the ms. runs counter to the sense.

422 Lit., "transfer to Him the undecided conversions of the breast."

423 Lit., "He can be formed by no imagination."

424 Lit., "which the obscurity of sacred divinity contains;" which Orelli interprets, "the most exalted being holds concealed from mortals."

425 Lit., "and being fixed on."

426 i.e., Christ.

427 As Heraclitus is reported to have said.

428 The ms., first five edd., and Oehler read supernatum, for which the other edd. read, as above, semper natum, from the margin of Ursinus. The soul is referred to.

429 So the later edd., following Elmenhorst, who emended dico for the ms. dici, omitted by the first four edd.

430 So most edd., reading sciolis, from the emendation of Gelenius; but the ms., first five edd,, Hild., and Oehler read scholis-"by some schools, and (these) arrogating very much to themselves."

431 Cf. ch. 13, p. 439; Plato, Rep., ii. st. p. 364, where Glaucon speaks of certain fortune-telling vagrant seers, who persuade the rich that they have power with the gods, by means of charms and sacrifices, to cleanse from guilt; and also Origen, contra Cels., i. 69, where the Magi are spoken of as being on familiar terms with evil powers, and thus able to accomplish whatever is within these spirits' power.

432 Mentioned by Servius (on Aen., viii. 399) as composed by Tages, cap. 69 [p. 460, supra], and seemingly containing directions as to expiatory sacrifices.

433 Pl.

434 Lit., "a spirit of perpetuity."

435 i.e., than the Supreme God.

436 Lit., "are."

437 Lit., "all human things."

438 i.e., reason.

439 The ms. reads fuisse me risui, which has no meaning; corrected, fuisse irrisui in most edd., and derisui by Meursius, Hild., and Oehler,-the sense being in either case as above.

440 Lit., "when it begins to approach to the feeling," cum ad sensum; so read by Gelenius for the unintelligible ms. cum absens cum.

441 So the edd., reading quid sit cum eis animis actum for the ms. cum ejus nimis.

442 Lit., "of ancient and very old men."

443 So the ms., LB., Hild., and Oehler, reading vinctionis; the other edd. junctionis- "union."

444 Lit., "unknown questions."

445 Pl.

446 Lit., "has run over."

447 So the ms. and Oehler, reading ut, which is omitted in all other edd.; in this case, the words in italics are unnecessary.

448 So Orelli, reading cur (quur in most edd.) for the ms. quos. Instead of non-"not," which follows, the ms., according to Oehler, reads nos, and he therefore changes quos into quaeso- "I ask, does He free all of us altogether?"

449 There is clearly no reference here to a particular passage of Scripture, but to the general tone of Christ's teaching: "Him that cometh unto me, I will in nowise cast out." Orelli, however with his usual infelicity, wishes to see a direct reference, either to Christ's words to the woman of Samaria (John iv. 13-15), or, which is rather extraordinary, to John vi. 35-37: "I am the bread of life," etc. Cf. n. 9, p. 459.

450 Lit., "the right of drinking."

451 Lit., "the kindness of."

452 Lit., "what waits He for, inviting," quid invitans expectat; the reading of the ms., both Roman edd. and Oehler. Gelenius, followed by Canterus and Elmenhorst, changed the last word into peccat-"in what does He sin," adopted by the other edd., with the addition of in te-"against you."

453 Lit., "exposes under decision of your own right."

454 Cf. Plato, Rep., ii. st. p. 379: "of a few things God would be the cause, but of many He would not;" and x. st. p. 617 fin.

455 So LB., Orelli, Oehler, adopting the emendation of Ursinus, tu te muneris commoditate privaveris, for the unintelligible reading of the ms., tuti m. c. probaveris.

456 i.e., immortal, deos, so corrected by Gelenius for the ms. deus-"if either God made us."

457 So most edd., reading inanis for the ms. animi; retained, though not very intelligible, in LB., while Hild. reads anilis-"foolish."

458 So the ms. now reads verti; but this word, according to Pithoeus, is in a later handwriting, and some letters have been erased.

459 So the edd., reading tibi desit? opem desideras tibi, except Hild. and Oehler, who retain the ms. reading, t. d. o. desideranti-"as though He failed you desiring Him to bring help."

460 So Ursinus, reading in ania cognomines for the ms. in alia, which Orelli would interpret, "call the reverse of the truth."

461 Lit., "For the parts of bringing...has enjoined and given over," partes...injunctum habet et traditum, where it will be important to notice that Arnobius, writing rapidly, had carried with him only the general idea, and forgotten the mode in which this was expressed.

462 Pontificium.

463 Here, too, according to Pithoeus, there are signs of erasure.

464 i.e., admit.

465 This passage at once suggests John x. 9 and xiv. 6, and it is therefore the more necessary to notice the way in which Arnobius speaks ("so to say"), which is certainly not the tone of one quoting a passage with which he is well acquainted. [Elucidation I.]

466 Lit., "bent."

467 Cf. i. 13 and 58.

468 Lit., "crops being invented."

469 So the later edd., reading constiterit from the margin of Ursinus; but in the ms. and first four edd. the reading is constituerit-"has established," for which there is no subject.

470 So the later edd., reading aversionem ex (LB., and preceding edd. a) religione for the ms. et religionem-"against us the hatred and religion of past ages."

471 Lit,, "with the condemnation of."

472 This shows that the division of the people into classes was obsolete in the time of Arnobius.

473 Turnebus has explained this as merely another way of saying the comitia centuriata, curiata and tributa.

474 So the edd. reading cum paratis bella (Oehler reads reparantes) for the ms. reparatis.

475 i.e., per clarigationem, the solemn declaration of war, if restitution was not made within thirty-three days.

476 This seems the most natural way to deal with the clause et ex acuminibus auspicatis, looking on the last word as an adjective, not a verb, as most edd. seem to hold it. There is great diversity of opinion as to what this omen was.

477 The ms. reads in penetralibus et coliginis. LB., followed by Orelli, merely omits et, as above while the first five edd. read in pen. Vestae ignis- "do you maintain the hearths of Vesta's fire." Many other readings and many explanations of the passage are also proposed.

478 i.e. Servius Tullius. The first four edd. read Tullo, i.e., Tullus Hostilius.

479 Cf. v. c. 1.

480 The ms. reads edi in filosophia; the first four edd., Philos.; Elmenh. and Orelli, Etenim phil.-"For were phil.;" LB., Ede an phil.-"say whether phil.," which is, however faulty in construction, as the indicative follows. Rigaltius, followed by Oehler, emended as above, Medicina phil.

481 Lit., "reached the coasts of."

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