359 The text here is very obscure, and has given some trouble to commentators. The words are: "Quae ergo ista est praeter haec voluntas animae quae extrinsecus nominatur," etc. Redepenning understands "extrinsecus" as meaning "seorsim," "insuper," and refers to a note of Origen upon the Epistle to the Romans (tom. i. p. 466): "Et idcirco extrinsecus eam (animam, corporis et spiritus mentione facta, Rom. i. 3, 4) apostolus non nominat, sed carnem tantum vel spiritum," etc. Schnitzer supposes that in the Greek the words were, Thj ecw kaloumenhj, where ecw is to be taken in the sense of katw, so that the expression would mean "anima inferior."
384 Cf. Eccles. i. 9, 10. The text is in conformity with the Septuag.: Ti to gegonoj\ Auto to genhsomenon. Kai ti to pepoihmenon\ Auto to poihqhsomenon. Kai ouk esti pan prosfaton upo ton hlion. Oj lalhsei kai erei. Ide touto kainon estin hdh gegonen en toij aiwsi toij genomenoij apo emtrosqen hmwn.
388 The following is Jerome's version of this passage (Epistle to Avitus): "A divine habitation, and a true rest above (apud superos), I think is to be understood, where rational creatures dwell, and where before their descent to a lower position, and removal from invisible to visible (worlds), and fall to earth, and need of gross bodies, they enjoyed a former blessedness. Whence God the Creator made for them bodies suitable to their humble position and created this visible world, and sent into the world ministers for the salvation and correction of those who had fallen: of whom some were to obtain certain localities, and be subject to the necessities of the world; others were to discharge with care and attention the duties enjoined upon them at all times, and which were known to God, the Arranger (of all things). And of these, the sun, moon, and stars, which are called `creature0' by the apostle, received the more elevated places of the world. Which `creature0' was made subject to vanity, in that it was clothed with gross bodies, and was open to view, and yet was subject to vanity not voluntarily, but because of the will of Him who subjected the same in hope." And again: "While others, whom we believe to be angels, at different places and times, which the Arranger alone knows, serve the government of the world." And a little further on: "Which order of things is regulated by the providential government of the whole world, some powers falling down from a loftier position others gradually sinking to earth: some falling voluntarily, others befog cast down against their will: some undertaking, of their own accord, the service of stretching out the hand to those who fall others being compelled to persevere for so long a time in the duty which they have undertaken." And again: "Whence it follows that, on account of the various movements, various worlds also are created, and after this world which we now inhabit, there will be another greatly disimilar, But no other being save God alone, the Creator of all things,can arrange the deserts (of all), both to the time to come and to that which preceded. suitably to the differing lapses and advances (of individuals), and to the rewards of virtues or the punishment of vices, both in the present and in the future, and in all (times), and to conduct them all again to one end: for He knows the causes why He allows some to enjoy their own will, and to fall from a higher rank to the lowest condition: and why He begins to visit others, and bring them back gradually, as if by giving them His hand to their pristine state, and placing them in a lofty position" (Ruaeus).
389 [According to Hagenbach (History of Doctrines, vol. i. p.. 167), "Origen formally adopts the idea of original sin, by asserting that the human soul does not come into the world in a state of innocence, because it has already sinned in a former state... And yet subsequent times, especially after Jerome, have seen in Origen the precursor of Pelagius. Jerome calls the opinion that man can be without sin. Origenis ramusculus." S.]
399 It was not until the third Synod of Toledo, a.d. 589, that the "Filoque" clause was added to the Creed of Constantinople, - this difference forming, as is well known, one of the dogmatic grounds for the disunion between the Western and Eastern Churches down to the present day, the latter Church denying that the Spirit proceedeth from the Father and the Son. [See Elucidation III.]
408 Jerome, in his Epistle to Avitus, No. 94, has the passage thus: "Since, as we have already frequently observed, the beginning is generated again from the end, it is a question whether then also there will be bodies, or whether existence will be maintained at some time without them when they shall have been annihilated, and thus the life of incorporeal beings must be believed to be incorporeal, as we know is the case with God And there is no doubt that if all the bodies which are termed visible by the apostle, belong to that sensible world, the life of incorporeal beings will be incorporeal." And a little after: "That expression, also, used by the apostle, `The whole creation will be freed from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God0' (Rom.. viii. 21). we so understand, that we say it was the first creation of rational and incorporeal beings which is not subject to corruption, because it was not clothed with bodies: for wherever bodies are, corruption immediately follows. But afterwards it will be freed from the bondage of corruption, when they shall have received the glory of the sons of God, and God shall be all in all." And in the same place: "That we must believe the end of all things to be incorporeal, the language of the Saviour Himself leads us to think, when He says, `As I and Thou are one, so may they also be one in Us0' (John xvii., 21), For we ought to know what God is, and what the Saviour will be in the end, and how the likeness of the Father and the Son has been promised to the saints; for as they are one in Him, so they also are one in them. For we must adopt the view, either that the God of all things is clothed with a body, and as we are enveloped with flesh, so He also with some material covering, that the likeness of the life of God may be in the end produced also in the saints: or if this hypothesis is unbecoming, especially in the judgment of those who desire, even in the smallest degree, to feel the majesty of God, and to look upon the glory of His uncreated and all-surpassing nature we are forced to adopt the other alternative, and despair either of attaining any likeness to God, if we are to inhabit for ever the same bodies, or if the blessedness of the same life with God is promised to us, we must live in the same state as that in which God lives." All these points have been omitted by Rufinus as erroneous, and statements of a different kind here and there inserted instead (Ruaeus).
410 "Here the honesty of Rufinus in his translation seems very suspicious: for Origen's well-known opinion regarding the sins and lapses of blessed spirits he here attributes to others. Nay, even the opinion which he introduces Origen as ascribing to others, he exhibits him as refuting a little further on, sec. 6, in these words: `And in this condition (of blessedness) we are to believe that, by the will of the Creator, it will abide for ever without any change,0' etc. I suspect, therefore, that all this is due to Rufinus himself, and that he has inserted it, instead of what is found in the beginning of the chapter, sec. I, and which in Jerome's Epistle to Avitus stands as follows: `Nor is there any doubt that, after certain intervals of time, matter will again exist, and bodies be formed, and a diversity be established in the world, on account of the varying wills of rational creatures who, after (enjoying) perfect blessedness down to the end of all things, have gradually fallen away to a lower condition and received into them so much wickedness that they are converted) into an opposite condition, by their unwillingness to retain their original state, and to preserve their blessedness uncorrupted. Nor is this point to be suppressed, that many rational creatures retain their first condition (principium) even to the second and third and fourth worlds, and allow no room for any change within them while others, again, will lose so little of their pristine state, that they will appear to have lost almost nothing, and some are to be precipitated with great destruction into the lowest pit. And God, the disposer of all things, when creating His worlds, knows how to treat each individual agreeably to his merits, and He is acquainted with the occasions and causes by which the government (gubernacula) of the world is sustained and commenced: so that he who surpassed all others in wickedness, and brought himself completely down to the earth, is made in another world, which is afterwards to be formed, a devil, the beginning of the creation of the Lord (Job xl. 19), to be mocked by the angels who have lost the virtue of their original condition0' (exordii virtutem)." -Ruaeus.
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