Four kinds of wormwood are found in Palestine-- Artemisia nilotica, A. Judaica, A. fructicosa and A. cinerea. The word occurs frequently in the Bible, and generally in a metaphorical sense. In (Jeremiah 9:15; 23:15; Lamentations 3:15,19) wormwood is symbolical of bitter calamity and sorrow; unrighteous judges are said to "turn judgment to wormwood." (Amos 5:7) The Orientals typified sorrows, cruelties and calamities of any kind by plants of a poisonous or bitter nature.
Main reference: Smith's Bible Dictionary (1860s)
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