The well-known valuable cereal, cultivated from the earliest times, is first mentioned in ((Genesis 30:14) in the account of Jacob's sojourn with Laban in Mesopotamia. Egypt in ancient times was celebrated for the growth of its wheat; the best quality was all bearded; and the same varieties existed in ancient as in modern times, among which may be mentioned the seven-eared quality described in Pharaoh's dream. (Genesis 41:22) Babylonia was also noted for the excellence of its wheat and other cereals. Syria and Palestine produced wheat of fine quality and in large quantities. (Psalms 81:16; 147:14) etc. There appear to be two or three kinds of wheat at present grown in Palestine, the Triticum vulgare, the T. spelta, and another variety of bearded wheat which appears to be the same as the Egyptian kind, the T. compositum. In the parable of the sower our Lord alludes to grains of wheat which in good ground produce a hundred-fold. (Matthew 13:8) The common Triticum vulgare will sometimes produce one hundred grains in the ear. Wheat is reaped to ward the end of April, in May, and in June, according to the differences of soil and position; it was sown either broadcast and then ploughed in or trampled in by cattle, (Isaiah 32:20) or in rows, if we rightly understand (Isaiah 28:25) which seems to imply that the seeds were planted apart in order to insure larger and fuller ears, and you can find more about that here on st-takla.org on other commentaries and dictionary entries. The wheat was put into the ground in the winter, and some time after the barley; in the Egyptian plague of hail, consequently, the barley suffered, but the wheat had not appeared, and so escaped injury.
Main reference: Smith's Bible Dictionary (1860s)
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