(In (1 Chronicles 5:26) and again in 2Chr 28:20 The name of this king is given as TIGLATH-PILNESER.) Tiglath-pileser is the second Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture as having come into contact with the Israelites. He attacked Samaria in the reign of Pekah, B.C. 756-736. probably because Pekah withheld his tribute, and having entered his territories, he "took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah and Janoah and Kedesh, and Hazer, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria." (2 Kings 15:29) The date of this invasion cannot be fixed. After his first expedition a close league was formed between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, having for its special object the humiliation of Judah. At first great successes were gained by Pekah and his confederate, (2 Kings 15:37; 2 Chronicles 28:6-8) but on their proceeding to attack Jerusalem itself, Ahaz applied to Assyria for assistance, and Tiglath-pileser, consenting to aid him, again appeared at the head of an army in these regions, and you can find more about that here on st-takla.org on other commentaries and dictionary entries. He first marched, naturally, against Damascus. which he took, (2 Kings 16:9) razing it to the ground, and killing Rezin, the Damascene monarch. After this, probably, he proceeded to chastise Pekah, whose country he entered on the northeast, where it bordered upon "Syria of Damascus." Here he overran the whole district to the east of Jordan, carrying into captivity "the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh," (1 Chronicles 5:26) Before returning into his own land, Tiglath pileser had an interview with Ahaz at Damascus. (2 Kings 16:10) This is all that Scripture tells us of Tiglath-pileser. He reigned certainly from B.C. 747 to B.C. 730, and possibly a few years longer, being succeeded by Shalmaneser at least as early as B.C. 785, Tiglath-pileser's wars do not generally, appear to have been of much importance. No palace or great building can be ascribed to this king. His slabs, which are tolerably numerous show that he must have built or adorned a residence at Calah (Nimrud), where they were found.
Main reference: Smith's Bible Dictionary (1860s)
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