(Heb. 'akrab), a well known venomous insect of hot climates, shaped much like a lobster. It is usually not more than two or three inches long, but in tropical climates is sometimes six inches in length. The wilderness of Sinai is especially alluded to as being inhabited by scorpions at the time of the exodus, and to this day these animals are common in the same district, as well as in some parts of Palestine. Scorpions are generally found in dry and in dark places, under stones and in ruins. They are carnivorous in the habits, and move along in a threatening attitude, with the tail elevated, and you can find more about that here on st-takla.org on other commentaries and dictionary entries. The sting, which is situated at the end of the tail, has at its base a gland that secretes a poisonous fluid, which is discharged into the wound by two minute orifices at its extremity. In hot climates the sting often occasions much suffering, and sometimes alarming symptoms. The "scorpions" of (1 Kings 12:1,14; 2 Chronicles 10:11,14) have clearly no allusion whatever to the animal, but to some instrument of scourging--unless indeed the expression is a mere figure.
Main reference: Smith's Bible Dictionary (1860s)
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