Gardens in the East, as the Hebrew word indicates, are enclosures on the outskirts of towns, planted with various trees and shrubs. From the allusions in the Bible we learn that they were surrounded by hedges of thorn, (Isaiah 5:5) or walls of stone. (Proverbs 24:31) For further protection lodges, (Isaiah 1:8; Lamentations 2:6) or watchtowers, (Mark 12:1) were built in them, in which sat the keeper, (Job 27:18) to drive away the wild beasts and robbers, as is the case to this day. The gardens of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs, (Song of Solomon 6:2; 4:16) besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts, (Song of Solomon 6:12) pomegranates, and others for domestic use, and you can find more about that here on st-takla.org on other commentaries and dictionary entries. (Exodus 23:11; Jeremiah 29:5; Amos 9:14) Gardens of herbs, or kitchen gardens, are mentioned in (11:10) and 1Kin 21:2 The rose garden in Jerusalem, said to have been situated westward of the temple mount, it is remarkable as having been one of the few gardens which, from the time of the prophets, existed within the city walls. The retirement of gardens rendered them favorite places for devotion.
* See also: Orchard.
Main reference: Smith's Bible Dictionary (1860s)
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