Rosh, generally translated "gall" in the English Bible, is in (Hosea 10:4) rendered "hemlock:" in (32:33) and Job 20:16 rosh denotes the "poison" or "venom" of serpents. From (29:18) and Lame 3:19 compared with Hose 10:4 It is evident that the Hebrew term denotes some bitter and perhaps poisonous plant. Other writers have supposed, and with some reason, from (32:32) that some berry-bearing plant must be intended, and you can find more about that here on st-takla.org on other commentaries and dictionary entries. Gesenius understands poppies; in which case the gall mingled with the wine offered to our Lord at his crucifixion, and refused by him, would be an anaesthetic, and tend to diminish the sense of suffering. Dr. Richardson, "Ten Lectures on Alcohol," p. 23, thinks these drinks were given to the crucified to diminish the suffering through their intoxicating effects.
Main reference: Smith's Bible Dictionary (1860s)
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