Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. X:Early Church Fathers Index Previous Next
The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom.: Homily LXXX
Matt. XXVI. 51-54.
“And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched forth his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priests, and smote off his ear.”
Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword unto his place, for all they that take the sword, shall perish by the sword. Thinkest 2997 thou that I cannot pray to the Father, and He shall presently 2998 give me more than twelve legions of angels? How then should the Scriptures be fulfilled that thus it must be?” 2999
Who was this “one,” who cut off the ear? John saith that it was Peter. 3000 For the act was of his fervor.
But this other point is worth inquiry, wherefore they were bearing swords? For that they bore them is evident not hence only, but from their saying when asked, “here are two.” But wherefore did Christ even permit them to have swords? For Luke affirms this too, that He said unto them, “When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye anything?” And when they said, “Nothing,” He said unto them, “But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and a scrip, and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.” And when they said, “Here are two swords,” He said unto them, “It is enough.” 3001
Wherefore then did He suffer them to have them? To assure them that He was to be betrayed. Therefore He saith unto them, “Let him buy a sword,” not that they should p. 483 arm themselves, far from it; but by this, indicating His being betrayed.
And wherefore doth He mention a scrip also? He was teaching them henceforth to be sober, and wakeful, and to use much diligence on their own part. For at the beginning He cherished them (as being inexperienced) with much putting forth of His power but afterwards bringing them forth as young birds out of the nest, He commands them to use their own wings. Then, that they might not suppose that it was for weakness He is letting them alone, in commanding them also to work their part, He reminds them of the former things, saying, “When I sent you without purse, lacked ye anything?” that by both they might learn His power, both wherein He protected them, and wherein He now leaveth them to themselves by degrees.
But whence were the swords there? They were come forth from the supper, and from the table. It was likely also there should be swords because of the lamb, and that the disciples, hearing that certain were coming forth against Him, took them for defense, as meaning to fight in behalf of their Master, which was of their thought only. Wherefore also Peter is rebuked for using it, and with a severe threat. For he was resisting the servant who came, warmly indeed, yet not defending himself, but doing this in behalf of his Master.
Christ however suffered not any harm to ensue. For He healed him, and showed forth a great miracle, enough to indicate at once both His forbearance and His power, and the affection and meekness of His disciple. For then he acted from affection, now with dutifulness. For when he heard, “Put up thy sword into its sheath,” 3002 he obeyed straightway, and afterwards nowhere doeth this.
But another saith, that they moreover asked, “Shall we smite?” 3003 but that He forbad it, and healed the man, and rebuked His disciple, and threatened, that He might move him to obedience. “For all they that take the sword,” He said, “shall die with the sword.”
And he adds a reason, saying, “Think ye that I cannot pray to my Father, and He shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? But that the Scriptures might be fulfilled.” 3004 By these words He quenched their anger, indicating that to the Scriptures also, this seemed good. Wherefore there too He prayed, that they might take meekly what befell Him, when they had learnt that this again is done according to Gods will.
And by these two things, He comforted them, both by the punishment of them that are plotting against Him, “For all they,” He saith, “that take the sword shall perish with the sword;” and by His not undergoing these things against His will, “For I can pray,” He saith, “to my Father.”
And wherefore did He not say, “Think ye that I cannot destroy them all?” Because He was more likely to be believed in saying what He did say; for not yet had they the right belief concerning Him. And a little while before He had said, “My soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death,” and, “Father, let the cup pass from me;” 3005 and He had appeared in an agony and sweating, and strengthened by an angel.
Since then He had shown forth many tokens of human nature, He did not seem likely to speak so as to be believed, if He had said, “Think ye that I cannot destroy them.” Therefore He saith, “What, think ye that I cannot pray to my Father?” And again He speaks it humbly, in saying, “He will presently give me twelve legions of angels.” For if one angel slew one hundred and eighty-five armed thousands, 3006 what need of twelve legions against a thousand men? But He frames His language with a view to their terror and weakness, for indeed they were dead with fear. Wherefore also He brings against them the Scriptures, saying, “How then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled?” alarming them by this also. For if this be approved by the Scriptures, do ye oppose and fight against them?
2. And to His disciples He saith these things; but to the others, “Are ye come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me? I sat daily teaching in the temple, and ye laid no hold on me.” 3007
See how many things He doeth that might awaken them. He cast them to the ground, He healed the servants ear, He threatened them with being slain; “For they shall perish with the sword,” He saith, “who take the sword.” By the healing of the ear, He gave assurance of these things also; from every quarter, both from the things present, and from the things to come, manifesting His power, and showing that it was not a work of their strength to seize Him. Wherefore He also adds, “I was daily with you, and sat teaching, and ye laid no hold on me;” by this also making it manifest, that the seizure p. 484 was of His permission. He passed over the miracles, and mentions the teaching, that He might not seem to boast.
When I taught, ye laid no hold on me; when I held my peace, did ye come against me? I was in the temple, and no one seized me, and now do ye come upon me late and at midnight with swords and staves? What need was there of these weapons against Him, who was with you always? by these things teaching them, that unless He had voluntarily yielded, not even then would they have succeeded. For neither could they (who were not able to hold Him when in their hands, and who, when they had got Him in the midst of them, had not prevailed) even then have succeeded, unless He had been willing.
After this, He solves also the difficulty why He willed it then. For, “this was done,” He saith, “that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.” 3008 See how even up to the last hour, and in the very act of being betrayed, He did all things for their amendment, healing, prophesying, threatening. “For,” He saith, “they shall perish by the sword.” To show that He is suffering voluntarily, He saith, “I was daily with you teaching;” to manifest His accordance with the Father, He adds, “That the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.”
But wherefore did they not lay hold on Him in the temple? Because they would not have dared in the temple, on account of the people. Wherefore also He went forth without, both by the place and by the time giving them security, and even to the last hour taking away their excuse. For He who, in order that He might obey the prophets, gave up even Himself, how did He teach things contrary to them?
“Then all His disciples,” it is said, “forsook Him, and fled.” For when He was seized, they remained; but when He had said these things to the multitudes, they fled. For thenceforth they saw that escape was no longer possible, when He was giving Himself up to them voluntarily, and saying, that this was done according to the Scriptures.
And when these were fled, “they lead Him away to Caiaphas; but Peter followed, and entered in to see what the end should be.” 3009
Great was the fervor of the disciple; neither did he fly when he saw them flying, but stood his ground, and went in with Him. And if John did so too, yet he was “known to the high priest.” 3010
And why did they lead Him away there where they were all assembled? That they might do all things with consent of the chief priests. For he was then high priest, and all were waiting for Christ there, to such a degree did they spend the whole night, and give up their sleep for this object. For neither did they then eat the passover, but watched for this other purpose. For John, when he had said that “it was early,” added, “they entered into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the passover.” 3011
What must we say then? That they ate it on another day, and broke the law, on account of their eager desire about this murder. For Christ would not have transgressed as to the time of the passover, but they who were daring all things, and trampling under foot a thousand laws. For since they were exceedingly boiling with rage, and having often attempted to seize Him, had not been able; having then taken Him unexpectedly, they chose even to pass by the passover, for the sake of satiating their murderous lust.
Wherefore also they were all assembled together, and it was a council of pestilent men, 3012 and they ask some questions, wishing to invest this plot with the appearance of a court of justice. For “neither did their testimonies agree together;” 3013 so feigned was the court of justice, and all things full of confusion and disorder.
“But false witnesses came, and said, This fellow said, I will destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it.” 3014 And indeed He had said, “In three days,” but He said not, “I will destroy,” but, “Destroy,” and not about that temple but about His own body. 3015
What then doth the high priest? Willing to press Him to a defense, that by that he might take Him, he saith, “Hearest Thou not what these witness against Thee? But He held His peace.” 3016
For the attempts at defense were unprofitable, no man hearing. For this was a show only of a court of justice, but in truth an onset of robbers, assailing Him without cause, as in a cave, or on a road.
Wherefore “He held His peace,” but the other continued, saying, “I adjure Thee by the living God, that Thou tell us whether Thou be the Christ, the Son of the living God. p. 485 But He said, Thou hast said. Nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds. Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy.” 3017 And this he did to add force to the accusation, and to aggravate what He said, by the act. For since what had been said moved the hearers to fear, what they did about Stephen, 3018 stopping their ears, this high priest doth here also.
3. And yet what kind of blasphemy was this? For indeed before He had said, when they were gathered together, “The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on my right hand,” 3019 and interpreted the saying, and they dared say nothing, but held their peace, and from that time forth gainsaid Him no more. Why then did they now call the saying a blasphemy? And wherefore also did Christ thus answer them? To take away all their excuse, because unto the last day He taught that He was Christ, and that He sitteth at the right hand of the Father, and that He will come again to judge the world, which was the language of one manifesting His full accordance with the Father.
Having rent therefore his clothes, he saith, “What think ye?” 3020 He gives not the sentence from himself, but invites it from them, as in a case of confessed sins, and manifest blasphemy. For, inasmuch as they knew that if the thing came to be inquired into, and carefully decided, it would free Him from all blame, they condemn Him amongst themselves, and anticipate the hearers by saying, “Ye have heard the blasphemy;” all but necessitating and forcing them to deliver the sentence. What then say they? “He is guilty of death;” that having taken Him as condemned, they should thus work upon Pilate thereupon to pass sentence. In which matter those others also being accomplices say, “He is guilty of death;” themselves accusing, themselves judging, themselves passing sentence, themselves being everything then.
But wherefore did they not bring forward the Sabbaths? Because He had often stopped their mouths; and moreover they wanted to take Him, and condemn Him by the things then said. And the high priest anticipated them, and gave the sentence as from them, and drew them all on by rending his vestments, and having led Him away as now condemned unto Pilate, thus did all.
Before Pilate at any rate they said nothing of this kind, but what? “If 3021 this Man were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered Him up unto thee;” attempting to put Him to death by political accusations. And wherefore did they not slay Him secretly? They were desirous also to bring up an evil report against His fame. For since many had now heard Him, and were admiring Him, and amazed at Him, therefore they endeavored that He should be put to death publicly, and in the presence of all.
But Christ hindered it not, but made full use of their wickedness for the establishment of the truth, so that His death should be manifest. And the result was the contrary to what they wished. For they wished to make a show of it, as in this way disgracing Him, but He even by these very things shone forth the more. And much as they said, “Let us put Him to death, lest the Romans come and take away our place and nation;” 3022 and after they had put Him to death, this came to pass; so also here; their object was to crucify Him publicly, that they might injure His fame, and the contrary result took place.
For in proof that indeed they had power to have put Him to death, even amongst themselves, hear what Pilate saith: “Take ye Him, and judge Him according to your law.” 3023 But they would not, that He might seem to have been put to death as a transgressor, as an usurper, as a mover of sedition. Therefore also they crucified thieves with Him; therefore also they said, “Write not that this man is King of the Jews; but that He said it.” 3024
But all these things are done for the truth, so that they might not have so much as any shadow of a defense that is surely shameless. And at the sepulchre too, in the like manner, the seals and the watches made the truth to be the more conspicuous; and the mockings, and the jeerings, and the revilings, wrought again this self-same effect.
For such is the nature of error: it is destroyed by those things whereby it plots; thus at least it fell out even here, for they that seemed to have conquered, these most of all were put to shame, and defeated, and ruined; but He that seemed to be defeated, this man above all hath both shone forth, and conquered mightily.
Let us not then everywhere seek victory, nor everywhere shun defeat. There is an occasion when victory brings hurt, but defeat p. 486 profit. For, for instance, in the case of them that are angry; he that hath been very outrageous seems to have prevailed; but this man above all is the one subdued and hurt by the most grievous passion; but he that hath endured nobly, this man hath got the better and conquered. And while the one hath not had strength to overcome so much as his own disease; the other hath removed another mans; this hath been subdued by his own, that hath got the better even of anothers passion; and so far from being burnt up, he quenched the flame of another when raised to a height. But if he had minded to gain what seems to be victory, both he himself would have been overcome; and having inflamed the other, he would have occasioned him to have suffered this more grievously; and, like women, both the one and the other would have been disgracefully and miserably overthrown by their anger. But now he that hath exercised self-control is both freed from this disgrace, and hath erected a glorious trophy over anger both in himself and in his neighbor, through his honorable defeat.
4. Let us not then everywhere seek victory. For he that hath overreached hath conquered the person wronged, but with an evil victory, and one that brings destruction to him that has won it; but he that is wronged, and seems to have been conquered, if he have borne it with self-command, this above all is the one that hath the crown. For often to be defeated is better, and this is the best mode of victory. For whether one overreaches, or smites, or envies, he that is defeated, and enters not into the conflict, this is he who hath the victory.
And why do I speak of overreaching and envy? For he also that is dragged to martyrdom, thus conquers by being bound, and beaten, and maimed, and slain. And what is in wars defeat, namely, for the combatant to fall; this with us is victory. For nowhere do we overcome by doing wrongfully, but everywhere by suffering wrongfully. Thus also doth the victory become more glorious, when we sufferers get the better of the doers. Hereby it is shown that the victory is of God. For indeed it hath an opposite nature to outward conquest, which fact is again above all an infallible sign of strength. Thus also the rocks in the sea, by being struck, break the waves; thus also all the saints were proclaimed, and crowned, and set up their glorious trophies, winning this tranquil victory. “For stir not thyself,” He saith, “neither weary thyself. God hath given thee this might, to conquer not by conflict, but by endurance alone. Do not oppose thyself also as he does, and thou hast conquered; conflict not, and thou hast gained the crown. 3025 Why dost thou disgrace thyself? Allow him not to say that by conflicting thou hast got the better, but suffer him to be amazed and to marvel at thy invincible power; and to say to all, that even without entering into conflict thou hast conquered.”
Thus also the blessed Joseph obtained a good report, everywhere by suffering wrong getting the better of them who were doing it. For his brethren and the Egyptian woman were amongst those that were plotting against him, but over all did this man prevail. For tell me not of the prison, wherein this man dwelt, nor of the kings courts where she abode, but show me who it is that is conquered, who it is that is defeated, who that is in despondency, who that is in pleasure. For she, so far from being able to prevail over the righteous man, could not master so much as her own passion; but this man prevailed both over her and over that grievous disease. But if thou wilt, hear her very words, and thou shalt see the trophy. “Thou broughtest in unto us here an Hebrew servant to mock us.” 3026 It was not this man that mocked thee, O wretched and unhappy woman, but the devil that told thee that thou couldest break down the adamant. This thy husband brought not in unto thee an Hebrew servant to plot against thee, but the wicked spirit brought in that unclean lasciviousness; he it was that mocked thee.
What then did Joseph? He held his peace, and thus is condemned, even as Christ is also.
For all those things are types of these. And he indeed was in bonds, and she in royal courts. Yet what is this? For he was more glorious than any crowned victor, even while continuing in his bonds, but she was in a more wretched condition than any prisoner, while abiding in royal chambers.
But not hence alone may one see the victory, and the defeat, but by the end itself. For which accomplished his desired object? The prisoner, not the high born lady? For he strove to keep his chastity, but she to destroy it. Which then accomplished what he desired? he who suffered wrong, or she who did the wrong. It is quite plain, that it is he who suffered. Surely then this is the one who hath conquered.
Knowing then these things, let us follow after this victory, which is obtained by suffering wrong, let us flee from that which is got p. 487 by doing wrong. For so shall we both live this present life in all tranquility, and great quietness, and shall attain unto the good things to come, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and might world without end. Amen.
[R.V., “Or thinkest.”]482:2998
[R.V., “even now.”]482:2999
[The citation is very accurate; the only variation is the omission of μου after πατρα.—R.]482:3000
John xviii. 10.482:3001
Luke xxii. 35-38. [On the renderings of Luke 22.36, see R.V. The text of the Homily admits of either interpretation, but the comment favors the rendering given in the text of the R.V.—R.]483:3002
John xviii. 11.483:3003
Luke xxii. 49.483:3004
Matt. 26:53, 54.483:3005
Matt. 26:38, 39.483:3006
2 Kings xix. 35.483:3007
Matt. xxvi. 55. [R.V., “robber”…“ to seize me”…“ye took me not.”]484:3008
Matt. xxvi. 56.484:3009
Matt. 26:57, 58. [Abridged and altered.]484:3010
John xviii. 15.484:3011
John xviii. 28. [Compare Homily LXXVI. 1, and the note there.—R.]484:3012
συνδριον λοιμν; cf. Ps. i. 1.484:3013
Mark 14:56, 59. [The passages are combined.—R.]484:3014
Matt. 26:60, 61. [The citation is very free, not agreeing with any one of the evangelists, according to our authorities; but it seems to combine terms from several passages.—R.]484:3015
See John ii. 19-21.484:3016
Matt. 26:62, 63. [Freely cited; the beginning is from the language of Pilate; Matt. 27.13..—R.]485:3017
Matt. xxvi. 63-65. [In Matt. 26.63, “the living God” occurs twice, peculiar to this Homily: in Matt. 26.64“of heaven” is omitted. In other details the citation agrees with the received text.—R.]485:3018
Acts vii. 59.485:3019
Matt. xxii. 43-46.485:3020
Matt. xxvi. 66.485:3021
John xviii. 30. [R.V., “an evil-doer.”]485:3022
John xi. 48. [Freely paraphrased.]485:3023
John xviii. 31.485:3024
John xix. 21. [The citation is accurate; “it” is supplied by the translator to complete the sense.—R.]486:3025
[The following clause is omitted in the translation: “Much better and stronger art thou than thine antagonist.”—R.]486:3026
Gen. xxxix. 17.
Next: Homily LXXXI
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