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Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. II:
On Christian Doctrine: Chapter 7

Early Church Fathers  Index     

Chapter 7.—Steps to Wisdom:  First, Fear; Second, Piety; Third, Knowledge; Fourth, Resolution; Fifth, Counsel; Sixth, Purification of Heart; Seventh, Stop or Termination, Wisdom.

9.  First of all, then, it is necessary that we should be led by the fear of God to seek the knowledge of His will, what He commands us to desire and what to avoid.  Now this fear will of necessity excite in us the thought of our mortality and of the death that is before us, and crucify all the motions of pride as if our flesh were nailed to the tree.  Next it is necessary to have our hearts subdued by piety, and not to run in the face of Holy Scripture, whether when understood it strikes at some of our sins, or, when not understood, we feel as if we could be wiser and give better commands ourselves.  We must rather think and believe that whatever is there written, even though it be hidden, is better and truer than anything we could devise by our own wisdom.

10.  After these two steps of fear and piety, we come to the third step, knowledge, of which I have now undertaken to treat.  For in this every earnest student of the Holy Scriptures exercises himself, to find nothing else in them but that God is to be loved for His own sake, and our neighbor for God’s sake; and that God is to be loved with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the mind, and one’s neighbor as one’s self—that is, in such a way that all our love for our neighbor, like p. 538 all our love for ourselves, should have reference to God. 1763  And on these two commandments I touched in the previous book when I was treating about things. 1764   It is necessary, then, that each man should first of all find in the Scriptures that he, through being entangled in the love of this world—i.e., of temporal things—has been drawn far away from such a love for God and such a love for his neighbor as Scripture enjoins.  Then that fear which leads him to think of the judgment of God, and that piety which gives him no option but to believe in and submit to the authority of Scripture, compel him to bewail his condition.  For the knowledge of a good hope makes a man not boastful, but sorrowful.  And in this frame of mind he implores with unremitting prayers the comfort of the Divine help that he may not be overwhelmed in despair, and so he gradually comes to the fourth step,—that is, strength and resolution1765 —in which he hungers and thirsts after righteousness.  For in this frame of mind he extricates himself from every form of fatal joy in transitory things, and turning away from these, fixes his affection on things eternal, to wit, the unchangeable Trinity in unity.

11.  And when, to the extent of his power, he has gazed upon this object shining from afar, and has felt that owing to the weakness of his sight he cannot endure that matchless light, then in the fifth step—that is, in the counsel of compassion 1766 —he cleanses his soul, which is violently agitated, and disturbs him with base desires, from the filth it has contracted.  And at this stage he exercises himself diligently in the love of his neighbor; and when he has reached the point of loving his enemy, full of hopes and unbroken in strength, he mounts to the sixth step, in which he purifies the eye itself which can see God1767 so far as God can be seen by those who as far as possible die to this world.  For men see Him just so far as they die to this world; and so far as they live to it they see Him not.  But yet, although that light may begin to appear clearer, and not only more tolerable, but even more delightful, still it is only through a glass darkly that we are said to see, because we walk by faith, not by sight, while we continue to wander as strangers in this world, even though our conversation be in heaven. 1768   And at this stage, too, a man so purges the eye of his affections as not to place his neighbor before, or even in comparison with, the truth, and therefore not himself, because not him whom he loves as himself.  Accordingly, that holy man will be so single and so pure in heart, that he will not step aside from the truth, either for the sake of pleasing men or with a view to avoid any of the annoyances which beset this life.  Such a son ascends to wisdom, which is the seventh and last step, and which he enjoys in peace and tranquillity.  For the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. 1769   From that beginning, then, till we reach wisdom itself, our way is by the steps now described.


Footnotes

538:1763

Comp. Matt. 22.37-40.

538:1764

See Book 1. c. 22.

538:1765

Fortitudo.

538:1766

Consilium misericordiæ.

538:1767

Matt. 5.8.

538:1768

1 Cor. 13:12, 2 Cor. 5:7.

538:1769

Ps. 111.10.


Next: Chapter 8

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