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Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. II:
City of God: Chapter 14

Early Church Fathers  Index     

Chapter 14.—Of the Damnation of the Devil and His Adherents; And a Sketch of the Bodily Resurrection of All the Dead, and of the Final Retributive Judgment.

After this mention of the closing persecution, he summarily indicates all that the devil, and the city of which he is the prince, shall suffer in the last judgment.  For he says, “And the devil who seduced them is cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, in which are the beast and the false prophet, and they shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.”  We have already said that by the beast is well understood the wicked city.  His false prophet is either Antichrist or that image or figment of which we have spoken in the same place.  After this he gives a brief narrative of the last judgment itself, which shall take place at the second or bodily resurrection of the dead, as it had been revealed to him:  “I saw a throne great and white, and One sitting on it from whose face the heaven and the earth fled away, and their place was not found.”  He does not say, “I saw a throne great and white, and One sitting on it, and from His face the heaven and the earth fled away,” for it had not happened then, i.e., before the living and the dead were judged; but he says that he saw Him sitting on the throne from whose face heaven and earth fled away, but afterwards.  For when the judgment is finished, this heaven and earth shall cease to be, and there will be a new heaven and a new earth.  For this world shall pass away by transmutation, not by absolute destruction.  And therefore the apostle says, “For the figure of this world passeth away.  I would have you be without anxiety.” 1383   The figure, therefore, passes away, not the nature.  After John had said that he had seen One sitting on the throne from whose face heaven and earth fled, though not till afterwards, he said, “And I saw the dead, great and small:  and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of the life of each man:  and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their deeds.”  He said that the books were opened, and a book; but he left us at a loss as to the nature of this book, “which is,” he says, “the book of the life of each man.”  By those books, then, which he first mentioned, we are to understand the sacred books old and new, that out of them it might be shown what commandments God had enjoined; and that book of the life of each man is to show what commandments each man has done or omitted to do.  If this book be materially considered, who can reckon its size or length, or the time it would take to read a book in which the whole life of every man is recorded?  Shall there be present as many angels as men, and shall each man hear his life recited by the angel assigned to him?  In that case there will be not one book containing all the lives, but a separate book for every life.  But our passage requires us to think of one only.  “And another book was opened,” it says.  We must therefore understand it of a certain divine power, by which it shall be brought about that every one shall recall to memory all his own works, whether good or evil, and shall mentally survey them with a marvellous rapidity, so that this knowledge will either accuse or excuse conscience, and thus all and each shall be simultaneously judged.  And this divine power is called a book, because in it we shall as it were read all that it causes us to remember.  That he may show who the dead, small and great, are who are to be judged, he recurs to this which he had omitted or rather deferred, and says, “And the sea presented the dead which were in it; and death and hell gave up the dead which were in them.”  This of course took place before the dead were judged, yet it is mentioned after.  And so, I say, he returns again to what he had omitted.  But now he preserves the order of events, and for the sake of exhibiting it repeats in its own proper place what he had already said regarding the dead who were judged.  For after he had said, “And the sea presented the dead which were in it, and death and hell gave up the dead which were in them,” he immediately subjoined what he had already said, “and they were judged every man according to their works.”  For this is just what he had said before, “And the dead were judged according to their works.”



1 Cor. 7:31, 32.

Next: Chapter 15

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