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English Bible Dictionary



The preparation of bread as an article of food dates from a very early period. (Genesis 18:6) The corn or grain employed was of various sorts. The best bread was made of wheat, but "barley" and spelt were also used. (John 6:9,13; Isaiah 28:25) The process of making bread was as follows: the flour was first mixed with water or milk; it was then kneaded with the hands (in Egypt with the feet also) in a small wooden bowl or "kneading-trough" until it became dough. (Exodus 12:34,39; 2 Samuel 13:3; Jeremiah 7:18) When the kneading was completed, leaven was generally added; but when the time for preparation was short, it was omitted, and unleavened cakes, hastily baked, were eaten as is still the prevalent custom among the Bedouins. ((Genesis 18:6; 19:3; Exodus 12:39; Judges 6:19; 1 Samuel 28:24) The leavened mass was allowed to stand for some time, (Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21) the dough was then divided into round cakes, (Exodus 29:23; Judges 7:13; 8:5; 1 Samuel 10:3; Proverbs 6:26) not unlike flat stones in shape and appearance, (Matthew 7:9) comp. Matt 4:8 About a span in diameter and a finger's breadth in thickness, and you can find more about that here on on other commentaries and dictionary entries. In the towns where professional bakers resided, there were no doubt fixed ovens, in shape and size resembling those in use among ourselves; but more usually each household poured a portable oven, consisting of a stone or metal jar, about three feet high which was heated inwardly with wood, (1 Kings 17:12; Isaiah 44:15; Jeremiah 7:18) or dried grass and flower-stalks. (Matthew 6:30)


* See also: Kneadingtroughs, Loaves.                     Divider of Saint TaklaHaymanot's website فاصل - موقع الأنبا تكلاهيمانوت

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