Judicial authority in Egypt is vested in an independent judicial system, which is based on elements of Islamic, English, and French laws. The Supreme Constitutional Court is the highest judicial body. Courts of general jurisdiction are divided into four levels. The Court of Cassation renders final judgments in civil and criminal matters and is composed of a president, 41 vice presidents, and 92 justices. Below the Court of Cassation are seven courts of appeal, each with jurisdiction over one or more of Egypt's governorates. In each governorate is a primary tribunal that hears both civil and criminal cases. At the lowest level are summary tribunals, which are branches of the primary tribunals that are situated in various districts and headed by a single judge.
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